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Power 

1. History

1.1. The period of 1918 – 1928

In 1918, the Da Lat first power plant (power station) with 50kW output capacity and low voltage line were constructed to provide power primary for offices and Lac Hotel (Hotel du Lac).

With a series of new projects, the first power plant was no longer supply sufficient output capacity. In 1927, a new power plant was set to building (in Hébrard’s planning). After more than one year of executed, the plant was inaugurated in 1928. This power plant was located at 118, Feb. 3rd Street, and there still remain an etching number “1928” in the front of the factory’s headquarter. Initially, the plant has three units which were operated by mazout oil: the unit No. 1 with 200kW output capacity, 3.3 kV voltage – manufactured by SERRA ALSTHOM (France) company; the unit No. 2 and No. 3: each with 400kW output capacity, 3.3 kV voltage – manufactured by WINTERTHUR (Switzerland) company.

Da Lat Power Plant

At the beginning, the power plant only had 3.3 kV lines which provide primary power for office area and hotels on Tran Hung Dao Street and Tran Phu Street, the zone that near the power plant such as: French primary school, hospital...

1.2. The period of 1928 – 1954

In 1929, O’Neil farm which was located at lower section of Cam Ly waterfall, has designed and constructed themselves a hydroelectric plant consist of a 15 meters height and 54 to 65 meters thick dam; and two units with capacity of 55 Hp and 260 Hp which is equivalent to 40 kW and 190 kW capacity. This amount of power provided the farm with power for lightning, pumping, cooling, and bottling the milk. Unfortunately, in 1932, because of a heavy storm and rain, rapid water level rose on Cam Ly waterfall, the dam was ruined and the plant was completely wiped out.

The rapidly development of projects and residential areas required voltage lines and power stations must be quickly executed to meet the demands. A series of lines and stations were constructed such as: Pasteur, Ethnic Minority Boarding School (Couvent des Oiseaux), Camp Militaire (Ly Thuong Kiet Street), Railway Station (Gare), Than Tho Lake waterworks, Joffre (five-way crossroad University), Dragages (Children House), Saint Benoit (Me Linh Street), Bellevue (Le Lai Street), Decoux (Van Kiep Street), Xuan Huong Lake waterworks, Tour de Chasse (Hung Vuong Street), Map Bureau, Queo Bridge.

Ankroët Hydropower Plant

In 1942, Decoux decided to execute Ankroёt Hydropower Plant according to Lagisquet’s design. This was the first hydropower plant in Vietnam. It was begun to construction in October 1942 and was inaugurated in 1945.

Ankroet Hydropower plant

Ankroёt Hydropower plant, at that time, was under the management of Indochina Public Work Bureau, this factory’s category include:

- Dan Kia Lake dam: highest point from earth: 1427 meters, highest point from stone: 1421.8 meters; basin area surface: 141 km2, useful capacity: 15.2*106 m3, stone dam’s bottom tuner: 1.6 meters diameter, 160 meters length with the highest point is 1410.8 meters.

- Ankroët Lake dam: receive water from Dan Kia Lake and provide for the plant through a water path. Stone highest point: 1410.72 meters, basin area surface: 145 km2, useful capacity: 106 m3.

- Water path include: concrete and steel rod tunnel 1.6 meters diameter; 4.82 meters in length; 1406.72 meters in height; the well with concrete and steel rod 3.8 meters diameter; steel path 1.5 m/1.3 m diameter; water valve 1.3 meters diameter; steel water pressure path 1.3 meters diameter; 182 meters long; factory output cellar 1321 meters high.

- The factory had two units with output capacity 300 kW per unit, manufactured by Bell Company (U.S.)

- The medium voltage line consist of: 31.5 kV line, Suoi Vang – Don Duong, 44 km in length; 15 kV line, Suoi Vang – Da Lat (Thi Sach Station) 12km long; provide power for Dran town and some area where the line pass by such as: Da Thanh, Tung Lam, Thanh Mau, Trai Mat, Xuan Tho, Cau Dat, Tram Hanh; 15 kV line, Suoi Vang – Da Lat which provide power for Domaine de Marie, Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer and nearby areas.

Power producing and selling management at Da Lat from 1918 was belong to CEE company (Compagnie des eaux et d’électricité de l’Indochine) – Indochina Power and Water Company. From 1945 on, the producing and selling power task had a new manager unit, Indochina Public Work Bureau, which was the in charge with the Ankroët Hydropower plant. The Indochina Public Work Bureau trading in following areas: Da Thanh 1 + Da Thanh 2 (from the end of Hai Ba Trung Street to Suoi Vang); Thanh Mau; Trai Mat, Dat Bridge, Hanh Station, Dran.

1.3. The Period of 1945 – 1975

By 1956, Da Lat City has been built and developed almost like the entire scence of 1975. The population in 1955 has reach the number of 53,390, nearly 3 folds increased compare with 1948 (18,513 people), the demand for power therefore increased, too. To help the demands of power meet and to prepare to provide power for the Da Nhim Hydropower plant road works, Da Lat power plant and Ankroët Hydropower plant were installed some additional units to increase the output capacity.

Da Lat power plant was installed CHICAGO unit, produced by the U.S., 1,250 kW output capacities, 3.3 kV voltages and in operation in 1957.

Ankroët Hydropower plant was installed 2 considerable units, 1,250 kW output capacity, FRANCIS type horizontal axis turbine labeled NEYPRIC and a generator labeled ALSTHOM produced by France, 6.6 kV voltage by generator and in operation in 1957.

At the same time with installed additional units, the 31.5 kV line, Da Phu – Da Lat, was executed and upgraded the 15 kV line, Suoi Vang – Da Phu, to 31.5 kV line for the Da Lat power plant combine with Ankroët Hydropower plant, increased the transship capacity to provide for Dran and Da Nhim Hydropower plant road works.

The 15 kV line, Da Phu – Da Lat had been upgraded to 33 kV to provide power from Da Lat power plant to Hai Ba Trung Street, Bach Dang Street. 31.5 kV line from Drain had been stretched to Ngoan Muc Pass down to Nhim Hydropower plant road works at the mountain foot.

From 1928 to 1968, CEE just managed one medium voltage level 3.3 kV and one average voltage level 110 V.

By 1957, Indochina Public Work Bureau handed over the Ankroёt Hydropower plant for National Power Restore Bureau.

Da Nhim Hydropower plant

Da Nhim Hydropower plant was granted by Japan to compensate for damage when they occupied Vietnam in 1945, and was organized contract by the United Nations. A series of large Japanese industrial company had taken part in: Nippon Koei: design consultative; Kajima Hazama Gumi: dam lake; Sakai: pipe path; Mitsubishi: generator; Toshiba: turbine; Fuji Denki: main transformer; Hitachi: power panel cabinet, automatic relay. The plant was began construction in 1959, on January 15th, 1964 two units were standard operated: unit No. 1 and unit No. 2 and on December, 1964 the No. 3 and No. 4 units were in operation, 160 MW in total output capacity. This was the plant with largest output capacity in Vietnam. The 230 kV line transferred power to Sai Gon was the biggest high voltage line at that time.

In 1968, CEE company’s management term was no longer valid, this company hand over their task to National Power Restore Bureau, Da Lat – Don Duong Power System was under Da Lat Power Center’s control, its head quarter was located at 118 January 3rd Street.

After receiving the plant, Da Lat Power Center had developed 6.6 kV power grids, upgraded some 3.3 kV lines to 6.6 kV, and extended the power supply zone.

In 1790, National Power Restore Bureau was dissolved; Da Lat Power Center was transferred to Vietnam Power Company.

In technical side, at that time, American Standard power grid constructing technologies were initially put into practice: centrifugal round concrete pillars instead of square concrete pillar, closed stations were hanged stations... With those new technologies, the developing line and station processes were carried out quicker.

In 1973, 66kV line, Da Nhim – Da Lat, Da Nhim – Thap Cham – Cam Ranh project was completed. Ad Lat City had a large additional source of power: 66kV Ad Lat Station at No. 2 Hung Dugong Street, with a quite fully made official and residential area accompany.

Da Lat Station’s technical parameters

In technical aspect, with 12.000 kVA capacity, 66/6.6 voltage, 6 transmit lines, Da Lat Station was quite modern which included: 12.000 kVA transformer (automatically voltage adapted when bearing loads); cutting machines were fitted in closed bin which were very safe for operation staffs; Power line carrier kept direct contact with Da Nhim executive office.

After there was Da Lat Station, 3.3 kV line, the east and northeast part of Xuan Huong Lake were rapid improved to 6.6 kV line and developed power supply.

In 1968, Tuyen Duc Contryside Electrification Co-operative was established from American grants and carried out power business on Thai Phien, directly under Tuyen Duc Province area, Dran’s remote area, Tung Nghia.

From 1970, Da Lat Power Center and Da Nhim Hydropower Plant were under Highland Power Zone’s control. When 66 kV station, Da Lat was completed, Highland Power Zone moved their office to its precinct in 1973, it is now named Lam Dong Power Office (No. 2 Hung Vuong Street, Da Lat).

Da Lat Power Plant, in 1970, installed one additional 400 kW Diesel CATERPILLAR dynamo produced by American to make the additional charge demands met, but this dynamo was broken down from the very moment when it was installed. In 1971, 2 additional SACM dynamos were installed, they were manufactured by France, set run on Diesel oil, 2 x 1.200 kW capacity. Those two dynamos were put on a convenience 4 wheel frame for easy transportation purpose.

These two SACM dynamos were appointed to the North in 1976. CATERPILLAR dynamo was out of order, could not be in operation. It was liquidated and disengaged as well as 4 initial units in 1993 -1994 to create a space for Moderation Office and Electric Repair Workshop.

1.4. The Period after 1975

From April, 1975: under Revolutionary government’s control

- Suoi Vang Hydropower Plant consisted of 4 units, 3.100 kW total output capacity, 2 Dan Kia Lakes and Suoi Vang.

- Da Lat Power Plant: 6 unit with total output capacity was 4.550 kW.

- Transfer grid and 31.5 kV medium voltage lines: 41 km. Da Lat medium voltage grid included 6.6 kV grid: 23.02 km; 3.3 kV grid: 23.05 km long. Don Duong medium voltage grid included: 15 kV grids: 8.13 km and 8.6 kV grids: 8.7 km

After the government had taken over Da Lat Power Plant and Suoi Vang (Ankroët) Hydropower Plant, power system has normally in function and the power supply process was not being interrupted.

Electricity Production in 1975 (Unit: kWh)

Da Lat

Don Duong

Lam Dong Province

Grid Received Power

3.247.042

207.056

3.704.298

Commercial Power

2.231.124

150.340

2.544.455

Customer

6.237

585

9.229

From September 13th, 1976, Lam Dong Management and Distribution Department was directly in charge of Da Lat Power Center, Lam Dong Power Center (Bao Loc) and Tuyen Duc Countryside Electrifications Co-operative. At that time, the system of managers consists of: 3 boards directly under Department Office and two power branches: Bao Loc and Duc Trong.

With the considerable effort, in the first year there were about 2.000 more customers (11.600 customers in 1976 compared with 9.229 customers in 1975) in spite of the financial and power materials difficulties like cable lines, pillars, equipments...

To improve the system stability, on April, 1978, 15 kV line, Da Lat – Duc Trong was completed, combined with 15 kV former line, Don Duong – Duc Trong, created more advantage opportunity for the development of Duc Trong – Lam Ha Area Grid. This line was provided from F6 line (6.6 kV), Da Lat Station, through a 3.000 kVA – 6.6/15 kV booster.

At that time, in Da Lat the demands of irrigated by electric motors from co-operatives and agriculture corporations increase rapidly, the medium – voltage lines were constructed to vegetables plan areas.

On April, 1948, Dan Kia Water Plant was funned and constructed by the Danish Government, using the same water source with Suoi Vang Hydropower Plant from Dan Kia Lake. Dan Kia Water Plant was powered by Suoi Vang Hydropower Plant, 6.8 kV line, 4.1 km long. Since then, Dan Kia Water Plant became the Lam Dong Power’s biggest customer.

In 1988, the 3.3 kV medium lines were upgraded to 6.6 kV lines. 3.3 kV medium voltage lines were taken off formally after 60 years of operating (from 1928).

Power per capita increased: from 19.2 kWh/person (1796) to 76 kWh/person (1990), 3.96 times increased.

In 1993, Da Lat’s 110V low voltage grid was renovated completely to 220V grid. Since then, 110 V civil voltage was taken off too after 75 years of using. The work of fitting up 12.500 kVA – 66/15 kV transformers for Da Lat Station 1 by Power Company 2 had a great effect on power supply stability, increase Station’s capacity twice. With 15 kV voltage power could be transshipped further toward Trai Mat – Da Tho’s direction. This work was in operation on November 10th, 1994.

On October 12th, 1999, raising the capacity of Suoi Vang Hydropower Plant’s machine No. 3, HARBIN by China, from 300 kW to 1.600 kW was completed.

On July, 2000, 66 kV line, Da Nhim – Da Lat and 66 kV – 22.500 kVA – 66/15/6.6 kV Station, Da Lat 1 were under Lam Dong Power control. Although Lam Dong Power’s management tasks were increased, it made advantages in moderating the power grid because of directly ordered instead of through one more station – Power Loading and Transmitting Company 4.

In 2003, renovating the 66 kV Da Nhim – Da Lat line to 110 kV was carried out. On April 4th, 2003 new 40 MVA – 100/22/15 kV station, Da Lat 1 Station, was finished. With new technology, cutting – closing system by SF6 and digital protected relay: total investment amount was 35.799.159.000đ.

In 2003, Developing and Renovating Da Lat’s City Power Grid Project was completed thanks to ADB lending capital. This was one of 3 project aimed to undergroundization the medium voltage line, closed fitted moderation station and l and low voltage line had insulated covered ABC within 3 cities: Can Tho, Da Lat, Bien Hoa.

The project was carried out according to VIE (SF) agreement No. 1585. It was signed on November 25th, 1998 between Vietnam Government and Asian Development Bank with total 5.675.929 USD investment. The money was taken from ADB loan and 78.337.000.000 VND national corresponding capital. The Project was set to work on November 16th, 2011 and was checked and taken over on April 20th, 2003.

Enclosed to the project, power branch was also received modern equipments, testing devices which served the testing and functioning task, underground medium voltage cable. The Project in Da Lat was completed and operated the earliest; Da Lat was the first city in the country which had modern power system within the city.

After operating this new system, 6.6 kV and 15 kV grids at Da Lat were suppressed officially, united the 22 kV medium voltage line. There were no longer uncover medium voltage line along side streets within the city, there were no longer any old power station and uncovered low voltage line, so this helped reducing line, equipment and man problems and increasing the beautiful looking for the city.

On May 30th, 2004, the 110 kV line, Duc Trong – Da Lat, 41 Km long, officially operated under favorable conditions, flexible for moderation task, reduced power cut time for Da Lat city when there were line problem or line overhaul.

Renovated Suoi Vang Hydropower Plant

On November 6th, 2004, 2 new HARBIN units were completely installed at Suoi Vang Hydropower Plant; capacity of each unit was 1.400 kW and the whole panel of switches produced by China. So, the entire old France units were replaced by 3 HARBIN units, with total output capacity of 4.400 kW, increased the average capacity per year to 24x106kWh. Total investment was 36.923.299.000 VNĐ (2.491.000 USD).

Beside the task of installed 2 new units, the project also included main categories: tackling the pressure pipe’s slipped by method of stone cast anchor by steel cable and concrete and steel rod frame; tackling flood drainage plant’s lower section; consolidating anchors; establishing and standard ling obstacle system building central control room enclosed weights and measures; protecting plant’s equipments.

Da Lat Power branch was established on September 7th, 2004, put an end to overlapping management situation of some office under Da Lat Power system.

Electricity Growth (2000 – 2006)

Commercial power (106 kWh)

Customers (households)

P max (MW)

Middle Voltage Grid (km)

2000

190,77

51.767

52,6

1.196,2

2006

416,536

183.260

105

2.240,8

Growth (%)

218,34

354

200

188,16

2. Power And Life

Before 1975, in Da Lat, power was responded primary for demands of households and street light because there were still little electric devices. The major rest part was supplied for waterworks, household water supply for the city. On industrial field, power was allocated for some small mechanical created and processed offices, Cau Dat Tea Company.

This was clearly shown through data of 1975, the amount of power for life light (1.7 x 106kWh), 3.35 times of the amount supplied for industrial and non-industrial fields, 71.2 times compared with the amount for agriculture.

Many years ago, one place was considered as a powered place when power per capita at 100kWh/person/year. Power per capital is the amount of power (in average) each person consumes in one year. In 1975, power per capita pf Da Lat was 26 kWh/person/year.

During 10 first years (1975 – 1985) with the development of some local industrial factories such as mechanical factory of the province, Trai Mat fertilizer factory, series of tin refined factories at Da Lat, Duc Trong, tea process companies on Di Linh and Bao Loc, lumber mills... the amount supplied for industrial branch increased rapidly.

Before 1975, farmer irrigated manually, used two buckets for some small gardens. With some large farm like tea and coffee hill major according to annually rainfall, a little of them has used diesel pump, but the number of consumer for cultivating was not noticeable. After 1975, with the formed of some production teams, agricultural co-operative and co-operative funding the power grid was developed rapidly. Moreover, the habit of farmers also changed and developed according to social progress, private gardens were also equipped sprinkle pumps.

Hence, for 10 years (1975 – 1985), the amount supplied for agriculture and industry increased rapidly, for details:

- Agriculture: increased 114.97 times (2.740.000kWh/ 23.800kWh).

- Industry and Non-industry: increased 29.2 times (4.89x106/0,507 x 106kWh).

At that time, power amount supply for life and households also has increased 5.057 times (8.58x106/1,7x106 kWh); the causes were the additional devices like TV refrigerators...and the increasing of population.

After 10 years, power per capita of Da Lat city reached the number of 102.61 kWh/person/year, Da Lat was considered as a powered city/

In 1990, power per capita of Da Lat city was 167.7 kWh/person/year.

In1995, power per capita of Da Lat city attained the number of 302,47kWh/person/year.

After 1995, the living standard was improved remarkable, since then, households devices increase. Moreover, the amount of tourism rose, the number of new hotel was intensifying, too. Farmer applied new techniques of growing flower, use electric light to adjust the flower’s growth. Consequently, the amount of power supply for agriculture, non-industrial fields and households increase rapidly.

In 1996, power per capita of Lam Dong province attained at 110.7 kWh/person/year, Lam Dong, at that time, was considered as powered province. Power per capita of Da Lat was 313.2 kWh/person/year, nearly 3 times the amount of Lam Dong province.

In 2000, power per capita of Da Lat city was 397.4 kWh/person/year, and Lam Dong province’s was 184.9 kWh/person/year.

In 2007, power per capita of Da Lat city was 701.37 kWh/person/year, and Lam Dong province’s was 371.07 kWh/person/year. Therefore, compared with power per capita of Da Lat was 26 kWh/person/year in 1975, the number was increased 26.97 times after 23 years.

On May 25th, 2007, the 31.5 kV line, Suoi Vang – Da Nhim operated from 1945 was upgraded to 22kV. After 62 years, the medium voltage level was suppressed.

During more than 30 years, from 1975 to 2007, the amount of social used power rose rapidly in a region without a large industrial base was a remarkable result thanks to changing producing methods in agriculture and industry. Hence, the power supply amount for agriculture rose 585.46 times, for industry rose 272.22 times and for households used increased 165.27 times.

Electrical Energy

1975(106 kWh)

2007 (106kWh)

The increase rate (fold)

Agriculture

0,0238

13,934

585,46

Industrial and Non-industrial

0,507

138,02

272,22

Activities

1,70

280,964

165,27

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