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1. Road Traffic

1. 1. The periods of before the 20th century

Before the 20th century, when the Lam Vien plateau was still empty land, resident used the tracks to move and trade with the villages together or they could move to the coastal plains. On the days of fair each year, many people’s ethnic minority often moved to the coastal plains in order to exchange goods with each other, and their journey could extend during a month. They brought these products from the mountain such as the wild beast, the bee's honey, the cattle and the agricultural products to exchange rice, white salt, dried fish and farming tool.

The main tracks linked between the Lam Vien plateau and Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan include:

- Ta Mon Track or Phan Ri road. In 1890, at first, Yersin doctor moved to this road in order to explore the plateau.

- Dran Track came across Ngoan Muc mountain pass to Pha River( Krong Pha), created a highway 27( Highway 11 old).

- A track from Djiring to Ma Lam ( Phan Thiet), then it created a highway 28( RL 194, Highway 12 old)

- A track from B’Sar - Me Pu to Binh Thuan.

The inside of large land of the Lam Vien plateau, Lach’s clan lived and farmed scatteredly every where following per small village near Cam Ly stream ( Da Lach), Prenn stream, Trea stream, walked along the streams going down Da Duong river, in area of the confluences of Da Sar river,…

The tracks linked the villages together to create the beginning of traffic system in the Plateau:

- The track followed Cam Ly stream( Da Lach) and the estuaries linked Rohang Bon Yo village (The Infantry Academy), Bon Dong ( college of pedagogics), Klir Towach(Hong Lac), Da Gut( My Loc), Rohang Pang Mloi ( near Cam Ly’s stream), Mang Lin; in the eastern, linked Dran Track; in the west linked Ta Nung Track. From that, these tracks created others.

- The tracks in the north, the northwest walked along Gold Stream, Da Dong River linked the villages such as, Bon Ding, Bon Nor, Dang Gia, Bon Dong, Ankroet, …and linked with Dam Rong Track.

- The tracks in the northeastern following the estuaries of Da Sar River linked Rohang Bieng village,…

- The tracks in the south following Trea stream linked with the villages such as, Da Pla, Da Trea,…went to R’Lang; following Datanla stream, Prenn stream linked Prenn village,…went to Klong.

1.2. The periods of 1893-1954

Paul Doumer - Governor General Of Indochina (1896 – 1902), with aim of exploit economy of Viet Nam gave ambitious investment policy on big projects, took the initiative many developing programs consist of building the cities serve for vacation; seaport projects, the road, the telegram- telephone and the railway.

In 1901, Paul Doumer - Governor General of Indochina came back France, the building programs in Da Lat with large size were stagnated because of lacking money; from 1908 to 1910, most of the buildings stopped. Da Lat had developed again since 1915, because World War I happened, it caused French could not return their country for summer holidays and the traffic went to Da Lat finishing the beginning of the periods. Da Lat was really a city when it became a Lang Bian province which be established in 1916 and built obeying the project of urban design of Ernest Hébrard architect in 1923.

1.2.1 Foreign Traffic

The main of the first foreign traffic in Da Lat was established in order to link two the most important roads whose trans -Vietnam, such as, Highway One and the railway, created trade with Sai Gon, coastal areas of South Central and Southeast. Besides, the Lam Vien’Plateau could link with Highway 14 which was building in the early 20th century.

Many survey teams who researched on the roads, they were recommended to the Lam Vien plateau:

- (1897-1898), survey team about topography of Captain Thouard and Garnier was appointed to go to the fields in order to research on roads and railways establishment.

Thouard team sought and researched on a road from the seaside to the Lam Vien plateau. Thouard considerred that the direction of road from Nha Trang to Da Lat could not carry out and created a road precariously from Phan Rang to Xom Gon, Dran, K’Long, Prenn and Da Lat. He also suggested another direction of road from Sai Gon to Da Lat, came across the valley of Dong Nai river, it was more convenient than Phan Rang road. Because it did not have to come across high mountains over 800m between Dran and Pha river.

- (1898-1900), survey teams of Odhéra, Garnier and Bernard researched on the road from Sai Gon to Da Lat according to Thouard’s idea, expected to be split Phan Rang road in Fimnom, through Djiring, went down the valley of La Nga and connected with railway walking along the seaside in Tanh Linh.

- (1899-1900), survey teams of Captain of Guynet and Buvigner finished Thouard’s research on the road from Phan Rang to Da Lat establishment.

Survey team was led by Guynet and Cunhac was a secretary consisted of 20 French, 70 troops and 1.500 workers who did the road, created the land road from Cua Nai( Phan Rang) to Da Lat. The length of road was about 120 km. It had carried out for 13 months; only used for elephant, horse to carry goods and pedestrians.

In 1905, this road was sowed of stone to go to Da Lat, but it carried out slowly; from 1908 to 1910, most of these buildings stopped.

In 1912, Governor General Of Albert Sarraut invested huge capital to resolve into traffic problems in Da Lat and determined on finishing the road from Phan Thiet to Djiring in 1914; improved the road from Djiring to Da Lat, the road from Da Lat to Song Pha and created the railway from Thap Cham to Xom Gon. A service station for the transport of cars was also established between Song Pha and Da Lat.

In 1915, Governor General Of Roume was continued to determine on pushing development in Da Lat, traffic systems were finished bringing many chances to people visited conveniently and it aslo created chances to help Da Lat become a province in 1916.

Two first Highways linked Da Lat with the coastal were established, it consisted of the road from Phan Thiet(Ma Lam) to Djiring –Đa Lat and the road from Phan Rang to Da Lat.

The road from Phan Thiet(Ma Lam) to Djiring – Da Lat

Ma Lam lain on the railway, it was far Sai Gon about 197 km and it had a road linked with Phan Thiet. In 1901, Outrey knew about the probability was that it can open the road from Ma Lam to Da Lat, through Djiring. The road from Ma Lam to Da Lat will have created trade between Da Lat and Sai Gon which be southern central economy.

Since 1906, survey teams of Garnier and Cunhac had begun to survey and research. In 1907, Cunhac carried out building of roads, it had many difficulties. Many workers and technicians were ill because of typhoid and malaria. The construction is done in several stages; in 1910, the road finished about 54 km, from Srespa- Km 43 to Tam Bo (Tambou)- Km 97,50.

In 1913, the construction was pushed through credit capital budget; the ramp from Ma Lam to Djiring about 79 km was cleared and the ramp from Djiring to Da Lat was continued to finish. Post chief of Djiring mobilized the ethnic labor, built bridge by wood crossing the Da Nhim river in Dai Ninh in order to cars could move and replace the ferry-boat connecting with dug-out canoe.

In 10/1914, the whole road was finished, the first car had begun from Phan Thiet to Da Lat for a day. Because traffic passing Phan Rang was not convernient. Thus, this period, Sai Gon and Da Lat moved together through the main road from Ma Lam to Da Lat.

That time, the Highway One between Sai Gon and Phan Thiet had not finished yet, traffic was carried out through the railway which had just built. The length from Sai Gon to Da Lat about 354 km spent 1.5 days, at first, through the train from Sai Gon to Ma Lam about 197 km and then, through car from Ma Lam to Da Lat on the road about 157 km.

When the road from Sai Gon to Phan Thiet was finished, tourist could use cars from Sai Gon to Da Lat through Phan Thiet on the length of road about 375 km. From Phan Thiet, the road passing on the fields, Yabach mountain pass with the height about 850m, Haloum mountain pass( the height about 1030m), Braian mountain( the height about 1000m); and from Datroum mountain pass(the height about 1200m), the road went down the height about 1020m quickly in Djiring. The landscape along the road was very beautiful, a little bit wild with thick forest and sloping, tortuous roads.

Since 1914, the brand passenger cars “ Société des Correspondances Automobiles du Langbian’’ (SCAL) allowed the cars with the brand was Lorraine – Dietrich to run on this road, Da Lat began to attract tourist visisted and hunted on summer.

The road from Ma Lam to Djiring created interprovincial highway 194 (RL 194), and then, it became highway 12 ( RC 12), interprovincial highway 8 and nowadays, it became highway 28. The road from Djiring to Da Lat and after that, it became a stretch of road of highway 20.

The road from Phan Rang – Da Lat

In 1901, Outrey was a leader who guided to the building of first service transport from Phan Rang to Da Lat following the land road and carried out scatter of stone. In 1902, the building was come to a standstill because of lacking finance.

In 1915, the length of the journey from Sai Gon to Da Lat passing Phan Rang was about 415 km and it had spent for 2 days. The length of the road from Sai Gon passing Phan Rang to Xom Gon was about 360 km was moved by the train. The length of the road from Xom Gon to Da Lat was about 55 km had to spend ½ days and was moved by many means. The road from Xom Gon to Da Ban ( 5 km) was moved by cars. The road from Da Ban to Ngoan Muc mountain pass ( 8km) was moved by palankeen or horse, the road from Ngoan Muc to Dran (7km) was moved by cars; the road from Dran to Hanh station was the track and the road from Hanh station to Da Lat, cars could move.

Other roads of Phan Rang – Da Lat were built quickly and in 1919, the whole of road was finished. After passing Ngoan Muc mountain pass to Dran, this road was linked with the road from Djiring to Da Lat in Fimnom. In 1920, opening added the road from Dran - Hanh station – Da Lat.

The railway and the road in Dran mountain pass

Highway 20, the road from Sai Gon – Blao – Da Lat

In 7/ 1932, the length of the road from Sai Gon – Da Lat – Blao mountain pass was about 305 km finished, created Highway 20. Cars could move directly from Sai Gon to Da Lat, traffic was more convenient and many tourists visisted Da Lat day by day because of moving time was reduced.

To move easily passing Prenn mountain pass, 2/1943, the road from the Prenn fall to Da Lat was improved through giving up the old road instead of the new road following other mountains side. At that time, the length of the road was just about 8.6 km instead of 14 km before; the bends in the road was just 79 instead of 134; the maximum width was about 7m while the width of old road was just 5.5 m; the slope of old road from 8 – 10 % while the slope of new road was just from 3 – 7 %.

Prenn mountain pass

Highway 21, the road from Da Lat to Buon Ma Thuot

In 1938, the road from Lien Khuong to Fillan ( Phi Lieng) was finished, next road was the track came to Buon Ma Thuot.

The road created Highway 21(RC 21) and now, it was Highway 27.

Thus, at the end of 1930s, it created highways system, the main interprovincial highway to trade between Da Lat and Dong Nai Thuong; Sai Gon, Phan Thiet, Phan Rang, Loc Ninh, Dac Nong and Buon Ma Thuot.

1.2.2 Urban Traffic

1902 – 1908, many survey teams were recommended to the Lam Vien’Plateau like civil servant teams of Ducla (in 1905) to survey the foreign road and in the central area in Da Lat; Team's military general Beynie ( in 1903), the general Pennequin (in 1904) and the captaincy Bizar (in 1905) did survey the places to build army barracks.

One of advantages which Da Lat was chosen to become a resort center instead of Dankia was that because of the condition of traffic was more easily. Da Lat was empty terrain, prolonged continuously and had the ramp while in area of Dankia consisted of the small hills and were separated by valleys mud.

In 1906, Da Lat was determined officially becoming a place to build the city. According to “initial construction program”, Da Lat had model of a modern city, had the lay-out of functional areas and technical infrastructure. The basics of the city with the main roads were outlined basing on the available tracks which ran along the mountain side or the divide, created framework of urban transport systems which have still been existed at present.

In the early periods of 1906 - 1914 , Da Lat did not changed a lot. Because the traffic was difficult and the funds were limited. Da Lat had just had a few houses in the central area and the traffic had still used mainly by horse or walk.

Since 1914, Da Lat had developed more quickly. The suburban traffic was completed each step, it created more conveniently as the transport of passengers and goods went to Da Lat. The first public buildings were built and major roads in the city were also formed:

- The main road south of Cam Ly streams where the location of the administrative center consisted of Graffeuil road (Hung Vuong) – Paul Doumer (Tran Hung Dao) – Yersin (Tran Phu) – Jean O’Neill (Hoang Van Thu). This main road linked with Highway 11 went to Trai Mat, Dran and Phan Rang and linked with Highway 20 went to Sai Gon passing the Prenn old mountain pass (Mimosa).

- Dankia road, from Da Lat to the north, and then splitted into two other ways linked with Ankroet and Lang Biang mountain. (Ho Lon - Dinh Tien Hoang – Nguyen Cong Tru – Xo Viet Nghe Tinh).

- The roads passing Ho Lon, the roads went around Lamartine lake (Ba Huyen Thanh Quan) and in the southern area of Ho Lon like Long road (Nguyen Truong To) – Pierre Pasquier (Ho Tung Mau).

Intersection before Palace hotel (1930)

Since 1923, the city planning was done through the project of Ernest Hesbrard architect. The provisions on the management of public roads and construction management were promulgated by the decisions on 1/6/1923 and 26/7/1923 of Governor General Of Indochina.

From the main street of the city had developed adding the main street area (the street belonged to the first level of residential district and the street belonged to the first level of commercial district): Pasteur street (Le Hong Phong); Gia Long (Le Dai Hanh), Dong Khanh (Nguyen Chi Thanh), Van Vollenhoven (Phan Boi Chau), Khai Dinh (Nguyen Van Cu), Maréchal Foch (Ba Thang Hai), Milice (Le Thi Hong Gam), Marché (Khu Hoa Binh), Annam (Nguyen Van Troi); Cau Queo (Phan Dinh Phung), Hoopital (Hai Thuong); Thouard (Bui Thi Xuan) to the barracks of Courbet (the military command of Lam Dong Province); the railway stations (Nguyen Trai, Yersin); 99 Point scenery roads (the loop of Lam Vien).

Besides, some of main roads were also formed: the loop belonged to in the area of Governor Indochina Palace (Bac Son Uprising); Robinson (Huyen Tran Cong Chua) – the southwest of city to the basement rocks; Avenue des Missions road ( Nha Chung), Rue de 1’Eveeque d’Adran (Ha Huy Tap), Carrièré (Doc Nha Bo), Trai Ham road to public housing of Vietnamese; Prenn road ( Ba Thang Tu road and Prenn mountain pass); the road to the concession of the French such as, Jean O’Neill (Hoang Van Thu), Grillet (An Son), Bourgery (Tran Quang Dieu),…

In the 1930s, Indochina regained prosperity and Da Lat attracted financial resources was huge to develop, continued to invest and became a popular resort city. Before WW II, the basis of administration and technical infrastructure of Da lat were built almost full. The suburban roads were completed and built more, ensured the condition of transport for development in Da Lat.

Along with the buildings, the roads in urban area continued to expand such as the street belonged to the second level of center trade around market; the street belonged to public housing in Saint Benoit (Me Linh), Bellevue (Le Lai), Cité des Pics (Van Kiep),… Ha Dong village (1938), Nghe Tinh (1940), Da Phu (1952), René Robin road (Quang Trung ), (Co Giang, Pho Duc Chinh, Lu Gia, Me Linh); Trai Ham road (Hoang Hoa Tham), Bourgery (Tran Quang Dieu).

Since 1939, when WW II began to happen, Da Lat attracted a large amount of investment; the city developed quickly and became a important resort city belonging to upland both Indochina and Far East, many tourists visisted day by day. Traffic was the top issue and it was concerned to invest. The entrance into Da Lat of Highway 20 was improved.

In 1942, the internal road in Da Lat had the basic of network as today and had total of 92 km, including 17 km of asphalted roads, 40 km of stone roads and 35 km of land roads.

Rapid growth had raised serious urban problems. Although many nice neighborhoods were appeared with wide paved roads, the city developed disorderly and stretches sparsely from East to West.

Governor - General Decoux not only wanted Da Lat was improved, reorganized but also oriented to a big city in the future. The reorganizing projects and development Da Lat were researched by Lagisquet architect in 1940 and it was approved in 1942. Besides the solution of urban planning for the construction of a garden city, the landscape protection, the establishment of new commercial centers and residential areas of European and Vietnamese, …traffic issues had been mentioned as math major about infrastructure priority.

The roads and the traffic in Da Lat were evaluated in the documentary “the previous reorganizing projects and extensions of Da Lat” (in 1940) and “planning Report” ( in 1942) by Mondet H. and J. Lagisquet as following

In general, the width of urban suitable roads with traffic but Intersection and squares should be renovated and expanded view. The old road systems along alignment to be respected, but it should be improved to reduce the slope or extended in accordance with the traffic density of roads.

Roads were considered which be important in residential areas. At first, the number of roads seemed more than demand, but it was the necessary consequence of construction of roads in areas with hilly terrain to avoid high slope. To serve the new subdivision area in Cam Ly, Cité des Pics, Cité Saint Benoit, ... project also was expected to have added a new road about 50 km and it will be set up more in available roads.

Together with reorganizing projects, a plan had carried out for 6 years, at last, it also was approved. Since 1943, central budget supported the implementation of the project in Da Lat. The plans from in 1943 to in 1944 were prepared by the Chief Inspector General including the construction of roads, public projects and the preparation ground for the construction of projects in the future.

1. 3. The periods of 1954 – 1975

1.3.1. External traffic

To serve the purposes of military in the plateau, the Saigon regime concentrated repairing and upgrading the important roads, ensured convenient traffic between Da Lat, Tuyen Duc, Lam Dong, Sai Gon and the central coastal provinces.

After 1965, because of the fierce war, some of intercity roads connected to Da Lat could not be exploited such as, Highway 21 came to Buon Ma thuot; inter-provincial highway 8 came to Phan Thiet, Quang Duc.

1.3.2 Urban traffic

1954 – 1963, some of urban traffics were built or renovated:

- Da Lat road of market, Nguyen Tu Luc road; the road in area of Dalat University, Vo Bi National University,…

- Internal roads in residential areas such as, Da Thien, Dong Tam, Thien My,…

1963 – 1975, the security situation was unstable, the urban development almost stopped, and only focused on the military or had immediate benefits, the urban road systems almost unchanged. The work of improvement was the most significant spreading stones , asphalteding in some urban roads such as, Nguyen Dinh Chieu, … or asphalting of concrete in the main roads like Tran Hung Dao road,…

The maintenance of road was carried out some roads belonging to downtown area. The coastal roads, the rural roads damaged, deteriorated. In 1974, many urban roads were cracked, rippled, had many potholes, many places were convexo-concave or the surface of the tracks out of plastics, the edge of the road was eroded by water. Da Lat company had planned replenishment, but this replenishment had just carried out a part.

1.4. After 1975

1975 – 1985, after a long time for war and because there was no conditions to invest with improvement , so, the road systems continued to seriously degraded. Technical infrastructure in general, and the roads in particular recovered slowly and it had not been developed as demand of economic development. In 1986, congress was occurred the 6th of communist Party in Vietnam which decided to carry out the innovation, opened the policy to develop market economy according to oriented socialism, Da Lat changed of the new period, the embellishment of urban development was brought into the development goals of the whole country, Lam Dong province, Da Lat city.

1.4.1 External traffic

The external road systems of Da Lat city was important traffic hub of Lam Dong province which belonged to transportation network of the Central Highlands, and integrated into the international transportation network to Laos and Cambodia through the National Highway 20, 27, 28, 55. It had formed a road network linking the Highlands to the central coastal provinces, South-Eastern provinces, where the road acrossed all the Highlands provinces (Highway 14). Traffic network from the center town to the district formed the highways.

In short, the road network was formed both giving reasonable strategy which be satisfying social and economic development and ensuring national security, and expanding trade with Da Lat city, Lam Dong province and neighboring provinces step by step. However, because capital investment had been limited, so, the growth rate was still slow, some of the highways had not exploited the segment; only exploited each segment, the quality of roads and bridges was still low and it did not synchronized. Before 2000, the road network was improved and avoided deterioration of the existing works and built a new road. After 2000, the road network was completed and built some new highways.

Highway 20

Highway 20 was the most important road which be linked Da Lat city with Highway 1 (at Dau Giay forks - Dong Nai Province), Ho Chi Minh City with Highway 27 in Dran, Phan Rang with the Central - Southern provinces.

The length of entire road was about 268 km which was asphalted and it had 29 bridges. The length of the segment from the boundary of Dong Nai (Km 75 + 600) to Da Lat was about 156km which was asphalted of concrete belonging to the third level mainly for the mountains, the bridges had weight were similar H30 - XB80 size 7m.

The length of the road in the area of Lam Dong Province was 192km consisted of 26 bridges and its length was 782m.

The length of the segment from Da Lat to Dran was 36km, narrow road, only belonging to the 4 th – 5 th level for mountain, narrower bridge with the weight was similar H13.

1990 - 1992, the road was upgraded asphalt to 5cm from Dau Giay to Dalat, improved some sewers and held a fee to payback. Nowadays, this segment was continuing to expand and upgrade these segments passing Di Linh, Duc Trong town.

Recovery and renovation Mimosa road

Mimosa Road ( the old Prenn road) was started renovation and upgraded in 2001 and basically completed in 2007, the length of this road was 10.88 km. It was opened more ways in and ways out city and reduced traffic density on Prenn mountain pass.

Mimosa Mountain pass

Motorway from Lien Khuong airport to Prenn mountain Pass

Motorway from Lien Khuong airport to Prenn mountain Pass (Km 203 + 600 to Km 222 + 800), was started to build in 2004. The work was invested according to the contract of Construction - Business - Transfer (BOT). The total investment was 632 billion concluding investment of BOT project construction was 437 billion and the budget supported for clearance ground was 195 billion.

Highway 27

Highway 27 linked Da Lat with Buon Ma Thuot and Phan Rang which the length of the road Lam Dong province was 123.6 km, had total 23 bridges and its length was 684m.

Highway 28

Highway 28 linked Phan Thiet with Highway 20 to go to Di Linh, Duc trong and Da Lat. The length of the segment in area of Lam Dong province was 96.6 km, enclosed in area of Di Linh from the boundary of Binh Thuan province to Kinh Duc ferry-boat on Dong Nai River (the boundary of Dac Nong province ).

Truong Son Dong road

The total length of Truong Son Dong road was 671 km belonging to the 4th level, from Thanh My town (Nam Giang district, Quang Nam province), walked through seven central provinces, the highlands and at the end of Gold Stream connected to Provincial Highway 722, from Da Lat to Dam Rong District.

Provincial Road DT 722

The length of Provincial Road DT 722 from Da Lat to Dam Rong was 92.5 km, beginning at Tung Lam fork road , passing Lake Yellow Stream - Dankia, Lang Tranh, Đưng K’Nớ, Da Long, Da Tong and Dam Rong. The road was also parallel hallway to Highway 27 in the northwest of Lam Dong province, where there were many difficulties in society and economy.

Provincial Road DT 723

Previously, the length of the provincial Road DT 723 was only 45.4 km, linking Da Lat (from Ho Xuan Huong fork road) to two communes of Da Sa, Da Chais belonging to Lac Duong district. This road was very bad, only had 2km of gravel roads, and the rest was land road.

According to the request of economic development about tourism as well as guarantee of defence security for coastal areas of Central South and the Highlands, at the end of 2004, the provincial road DT 723 was invested extending northeast through Khanh Vinh and Khanh Son (Khanh Hoa province).

On 27/4/2007, the length of the new road was 130.6 km, connecting Da Lat to Nha Trang was unstopped the first period, which the length of the road in area of Lam Dong province was 54km.

The journey between two popular tourist cities was shortened 98km which was compared with the old road from Da Lat - Phan Rang - Nha Trang (228km). The new road also opened up developing opportunities for 3 districts belonging to deep areas such as, Dien Khanh, Khanh Vinh (Khanh Hoa), Lac Duong (Lam Dong).

Provincial Road DT 723 ( Da Lat – Nha Trang)

Provincial Road DT 725

The length of the provincial Road DT 725 was 143.6 km, from Cam Ly airport of gate passing Ta Nung commune, Nam Ban, Dinh Van town (Lam Ha district), Dinh Trang Thuong (Di Linh), Tan Rai (Bao Lam district) to Loc Bac and the end was Da Tẻh town (Da Tẻh district). The provincial Road 725 was created the second hallway of Northern South which was parallel to Highway 20 connecting 4 districts and towns to Da Lat.

Specialized Road

To visit Ba mountain, visitors could go Lang Bian road from Phuoc Thanh bridge to the mountain foot with its length was 2.2 km and the road went to the top of the mountain was 4.6 km, and the road was made of asphalt of concrete . Thus, to move was more convenient.

Since the hydroelectric projects of Ham Thuan - Da Mi and Dai Ninh were built, traffic from Da Lat city, Lam Dong Province to Binh Thuan province became richer with the formation of specialized roads linked Highway 20 with the hydroelectric factories above.

1.4.2 Internal Traffic

After the war, Da Lat urban roads had damaged quite a lot, from 1975 to 1985 because of lacking of money for maintenance and investing the renovation. Therefore, it was the more and the more seriously downgraded. During this period, only a few rural roads was repaired and refreshed to serve agricultural production.

Investment and development traffic were identified as a key program, so, although the capital was limited, Government and People's Committee of Lam Dong province and People's Committee of Da Lat City had focused on the road external importance, built wide road systems and upgraded the urban road network, to serve the needs of economic development of local society better, created more attractive for tourism, served movement of people and visitors.

The basic of urban traffic network was unchanged, some roads were renovated and expanded or built to suit with the flow of traffic and the development of the city.

Improvement and building the new urban roads

From the mid-1990s, the urban road system was to invest and upgrade from many budgets which were centralized of Lam Dong province and Da Lat city.

Traffic was improved step by step and the streets also became more spacious.

Every year, budget investment for the projects of traffic has increased quickly: in 1995 about 10 billion, in 2000 about over 30 billion and in 2005 had reached over 100 billion.

The main road was to invest and upgrade, the road and the intersection were renovated, expanded to ensure the flow and visibility of traffic . List of roads were started as follows: (1995 – 1996): the axis of roads such as, Tran Phu, Dinh Tien Hoang, Phu Dong Thien Vuong, Yersin, Quang Trung, Kim Cuc button, Ba Thang Tu, Ho Tung Mau. (2000 – 2003): Phan Chu Trinh, Ho Xuan Huong, Nguyen Tu Luc, Hoang Van Thu, Xo Viet Nghe Tinh.

Besides, the repair was to prevent degradation; the urban road network was restored, renovated drainage system and upgraded the road from the structure of asphalt of concrete.

Some of the beltways and the roads to the tourist area were invested to build the new such as, Truc Lam Yen Tu road (1998), Cam Ly - Mang Lin (2002), Tung Lam – Gold Stream (2004), Dinh III - Tuyen Lam lake (2004), Mai Anh Dao (2006), the road in the tourist area Tuyen Lam lake ...

Rural Roads

The communes belonging to Da Lat city were located on the main road, so, the traffic was very convenient. Xuan Truong commune, Xuan Tho commune were also located on Highway 20 and Ta Nung commune was located on road DT 725.

The rural road systems including the roads in the agricultural area, the road from commune to the village, village roads, inter-trade, ...

With using budget capital policy and people's contributions, many roads had been repaired, upgraded, new plastic or made new goods to serve for production and daily life.

In 2007, Da Lat has 88km belonging to rural roads, including Ta Nung commune has 34km, Xuan Tho commune has 29km, Xuan Truong commune has 20km, the new land road has 5km.

2. Air Traffic

Air traffic in Da Lat city was carried out mainly through Lien Khuong airport and Cam Ly airport.

2.1 Lien Khuong Airport

2.1.1 Positions

Lien Khuong Airport has transaction name in English was that Lien Khuong Airport, abbreviations AITA code: DLI, OACI code: VVDL; was located at coordinates 110 45’15’’northern latitude and 1060 25’ 09’’ eastern longitude belonging to Lien Nghia town, Duc Trong district, Lam Dong province, farther the center of Da Lat city was 28km belonging to the South of the town and the central of Lien Nghia town was 4km belonging to the North. The height of Lien Khuong airport was 962m compared with sea level. The length of runway was 2.350m compared with asphalt of concrete surface.

Lien Khuong Airport station

Distance as the crow flies from Lien Khuong airport to some other airports in Vietnam such as, Lien Khuong - Tan Son Nhat (Ho Chi Minh City): 214km, Lien Khuong - Noi Bai (Hanoi): 968km.

2.1.2 The process of formation

The previous period 1954

Lien Khuong airport has been built by the French for three years and came into operation in 1933, with the length of runway which was made of hard clay was 700m. Meanwhile, the airport was ranked the third, only to satisfy with the type of light aircraft under 2 tonnes.

In 1945, during World War II, to satisfy the needs of the war, Japanese forces had repaired Lien Khuong airport. The runway was spreaded stones using for Zéro fighter aircraft.

In 1947, the airport was expanded and established air road from Ha Noi to Da Lat in 1948.

In 1953, Ty Lien Lac airport in Da Lat was founded. October, 1955, This Ty Lien Lac airport has been put on the administration of Civil Nation airport belonging to the Ministry of Public Works.

The period of 1954 – 1975

In 1960, Lien Khuong airport was renovated and upgraded, the length of the runway was 1.480m, the width was 37m , the runway surface was asphalted. The airport was equipped with MIL lamp and the proper equipment to help aircraft could land and take off at night in bad weather.

In 1961, Lien Khuong airport was equipped with additional new communications equipment - radio receiver to replace the old equipment, to help communication with the aircraft taking off or flying over its airspace was more perfect. Meanwhile, the Saigon government issued the new regulations of security aviation procedures and the regulations of the exchange information between the airport and air traffic center in Saigon to ensure safety of flight. The airport was commonly used for civil aircraft and military.

The civil aviation station was built according to architecture of the third floors house , belonging to the first level. This building was inaugurated on 24/2/1961 with capacity of 50.000 passengers / year, about 120 passengers / peak hours.

1964 - 1972, the entire of runway, the parking, the roads continued to be upgraded, the asphalt of concrete and its thickness was from 8 - 10 cm and it could be used for aircraft less than 35 tons; the parking area was 23.100m2; the length of the motorway was 2.100m.

Airport ensured land for the type of Viscount aircraft propeller or Douglas DC 3, DC4 aircraft .

The period after 1975

After 30/4/1975, Lien Khuong Airport was Vietnam People's Army took over and operated. The airport has the capacity to receive the kind of civil aircraft belonging to narrow body, has short range such as, Yak- 40, ATR-72, Fokker-70 (wheel pressure was 8 kg/cm2).

In 1980, Lien Khuong airport was transferred to the branch of Airport belonging to management of South.

On 2/9/2003, the Southern branch of Airport started to carry out the project “Expansible improvement and the renovation of the Runway, Roller road and the Parking of Lien Khuong airport”. The exploitation size of civil aircraft belonging to narrow body, flying short to average level such as, A-320, A-321 and it was similar with Lien Khuong airport which reached 4C standard according to the decentralization of ICAO ( international civil aviation Organisation) and military airfields belonging to levels 2 .

On 11/8/2006, Lien Khuong airport gave the new runway on using. Currently, the total land area of Lien Khuong airport is 160ha, concluding a runway has the length is 2.350m, its width is 37m; a Roller road has the length is 94m, its width is 19m ; the parking area of aircraft is 23.100m2 and has 5 parking positions for ATR-72 aircraft and Fokker-70 aircraft ; the parking area of car is 1.478m2. The area of passenger station is 1.000m2. The equipment of ground has charging vehicle of aircraft, the passenger cars, the trucks, the ambulances, the fire engines.

2.2 Cam Ly Airport

Cam Ly Airport – one of four airports of Lam Dong province was small. Its English name is Cam Ly Airport, its abbreviations IATA code: N/A; OACI code: VVCL. Cam Ly Airport is located on the height was 1505m, its coordinates was 110 56’34 ’’ belonging to north latitude and 1080 24’54’’ east longitude, belonging to precinct 5, farther the central Da Lat city was 3 km to the west.

The South of Cam Ly airport was adjacent to Provincial Highway 725 to Ta Nung; the east was adjacent to Cam Ly Stream, the northwest was adjacent to the empty of hills and valleys . The height of Cam Ly airport was 1.505m compared to sea level. In the direction of 10L/28R, the length of Runway was 1.390m with asphalt of concrete surface.

Before 1975, Cam Ly Airport was the military airport of Sai Gon and U.S. forces. At that time, the airport was a commercial port of vegetables for the U.S. military.

After 1975, Cam Ly Airport was an airport of Academy of Infantry, and then it was transferred to the branch Airport belonging to management of South. Cam Ly Airport was used mainly as military airport and it could serve for small aircraft including sport aircraft and helicopters. Nowadays, this airport has no scheduled flights regularly .

3. Railway Traffic

Railway traffic of Da Lat city was carried out through the railway from Cham Tower to Da Lat, it was built from 1903 to 1928, the operations of the entire transport started to carry out in 1932 and it has been stopped since the late 1960s. Since 1991, the Railway from Da Lat to Trai Mat has been exploited to serve for tourist.

3.1 The process of formation

The process of formation Railway from Thap Cham to Da Lat associated with the process formation of the Vietnam Railway and Da Lat city.

The program of Indochinese railway was initiated by the Governor of Indochina Paul Doumer and it was carried out from 1896 to 1936. With legislation in 1898 could loan about 200 million franc budget with 3.5% interest rate, it allowed to carry out this program on a large size and the formation of main railways in Vietnam which have still been existed today .

The length of the railway from Ha Noi to Sai Gon - the backbone railway was 1.726 km and then, it radiated branches such as, Hanoi - Lao Cai connected to Van Nam(China); Hanoi - Lang Son connected to Quang Tay(China); Cham Tower- Da Lat; Nhi An - Loc Ninh, Gia Dinh - Hoc Mon. The total length of railway was completed about 2.443km with narrow gauge of One meter. The program of Indochinese railway was also expected to build the railway from Saigon - Phnom Penh, extending to the Thailand border linked with Bangkok railway. From that, creating an important strategic trade between China and Thailand and it could be continued to extend to Indonesia, the formation of the Trans-Asia railway through Southeast Asia. Although it has not fully carried out yet, this was expected and with a large vision to bring this idea has still been valid today.

After deciding to set up rest stations at the Lam Vien plateau, to solve external traffic problems to the city in the future, in parallel with the implementation of road construction projects, in 1901, the Governor Paul Doumer also directed research projects on construction of the railway linking the main railway from Hanoi - Sai Gon to Da Lat and decided to establish a branch railway from Saigon - Khanh Hoa to Da Lat. That same year, the Railway from Saigon - Khanh Hoa has been started to build, in 1908, completed 132km to Dinh river, and in 1913, finished to Nha Trang.

Many working groups were sent up to survey the railway from the plateau to the coast as Garnier group in 1897 and other groups of Baudesson captain in 1901.

After Paul Doumer came back his country, along with economic, political and military difficulties of France in the early 20th century, the implementation of construction projects the railway from Thap Cham - Da Lat has been interrupted several times .

The railway from Thap Cham - Dalat was built according to single railway, narrow belonging to type of a meter and be carried out in three periods:

3.1.1 Building the railway from Thap Cham to Xom Gon (1903-1916)

The roads started to build in 1903, but since 1908, it has just been carried out the construction of infrastructure of the first stretch of railway and the execution stopped in 1910 because of lacking money. In 1913, it was continued to rebuild thanks to the credit of the budget, completed to put rail (1915) and put into operation (1916) with two trains per week.

From Thap Cham station, the branch railway in the northwest, went around the Po Klong Garai Tower Hill, then went in the plain to the valleys of Dong Dai mountain ; passing Luong Nhon station (Km 06 +198.30), Dong Me (Km 13 +887.70), Tan My (km 21 +418.60), Quang Son (Km 29 +550.00) and Xom Gon (38.00 km)

Through Tan My, a bridge concluding 8 rhythms was made of metal, has beautiful architecture, was built on the concrete abutment to the railway passing Cai river which has unusually large flood.

3.1.2 Building the railway from Xom Gon to Song Pha (1916-1917)

The railway was extended to Song Pha (km 40 +591.70) in 1917. This was short and easy construction, except for the construction of a bridge at the gateway to Pha river.

At that time, the next journey from Song Pha to Da Lat was done by carrying palankeen and horses. Since 1919, the cars going Ngoan Muc, Dran connected to the Da Lat road in Fimnom has just been finished.

3.1.3 Building the railway from Song Pha to Da Lat( 1922- 1932)

In 1922, after a period of interruption, at the end of railway gave for Asian Construction Company (Société d’Entreprises Asiatiques - SEA) undertook the construction. The management of the project railway from Song Pha – Da Lat was given for M. Porte who was an excellent engineer by SEA, with the participation of the Swedish engineers who have many experiences in the construction of the railway in the mountains difficulties.

If the first railway passing the plain from Thap Cham to Song Pha was built favourablely, then the rest of the Song Pha to Da Lat has many difficulties in passing too many mountains with its height was very large, the construction was very hard because of terrain, forests and harsh climate. The railway was built according to mountain side winding with many curves belonging to small radius, overcame many tunnels, bridges and steep cliff walls. Although the direction of this railway was risk, inspiration as passing through the areas have many beautiful sceneries and spectacular.

The construction site of the railway from Song Pha to Da Lat had to dig five tunnels with its total length was 1.090m: the length of first tunnel was 163m and the length of the second tunnel was 70m on the Song Pha - Eo Gio; the length of the third tunnel was 630m on the railway from Hanh Station - Land Bridge, the length of the fourth tunnel was 98m and the length of the fifth tunnel was129m on the Land Bridge - Da Tho.

The cog railway system from Song Pha – Da Lat

The Da Lat railway was installed approximately 16 km of cog railway belonging to type Abt - two tongues on 3 segments of railway which have the largest slope from 10 to 12%: The cog segment of Song Pha - Eo Gio was approximate 9 km and the slope was 12% . The cog segment of Dran – Hanh station was about 4km and the slope was 11.5% . The cog segment of Da Tho - Trai Mat was about 2km and its slope was 6%.

When coming the Song Pha where reached for the height was 186 m. That time, landscape and terrain changed completely and the facing was ridges high lofty mountains which obstructed these railways to the plateau. Distance as the crow flies from the Song Pha to Eo Gio only was 7.6 km, but the height difference was over 805 m. The length of the railways passing Ngoan Muc mountain pass was 10km with a vertical slope, through the first cog railway and two tunnels: the first tunnel near Ca Bo and the second tunnel belonging to at the end of the cog near Eo Gio station. On this railway has been put a point of intersection and avoid the train up and down in Ca Bo (K’Beu - Km 46 +717.70).

After passing the Ngoan Muc mountain pass to Eo Gio station (km 50 +521.70) with the height was 991m, the next railway passing the railway was quite flat terrain to go to Dran station/ Can Rang (Km 55 +671.12) with the height was 1.016m.

The stretch of railway from Dran - Trai Mat was vertical up and down quite complex, it could be divided into three segments:

- From Dran to Hanh station (Km 61 +450.00) with its height was 1514m, the short railway was 5km and to be the second cog railway. The railway winding passing the hills to cross the height and avoid the obstacles of the terrain.

- From Hanh station to Da Tho with its length was 11km through Land Bridge station (Km 65 +937.43), went according to the ramp down repeatedly on the rail normally and passing three tunnels: the third longest tunnel the entire railway, tunnel No. 4 and No. 5 tunnel under Highway 20, to reach the Bo station (Da Tho, km 72 +510.65) with its height was 1.402m.

- From Da Tho to Trai Mat with its length was 5km more than the third rail cog. This was the last obstacle to the gate of Trai Mat (Km 77 +570.00) with its height was 1488m to the highlands.

The train to Da Lat

The last of the railway from Da Lat to Trai Mat has the length was 6.55 km with conventional rails. From Trai Mat Station, the railway bended round according to the hill of Sao Nam region, Chi Lang and acrossing under the bridge for cars of Tran Quy Cap railway to go to Da Lat station(km 84 +084.22) with its height was 1.550m.

After 25 years of construction with its cost was 8 million Indochina, in 1928, during the economic depression, the railway was inaugurated and exploited the entire railway step by step: the length from Thap Cham to Song Pha was 41 km, and it started to exploit in 1917; the length from Song Pha to Eo Gio was 10 km and has been exploited since 1928; from Ngoan Muc to Dran with its length was 5km and has been exploited since 1929; from Dran to Hanh station with its length was 5 km, and has been exploited since 1930; from Hanh station to Da Lat with its length was 23 km, and has been exploited since 1932.

An important highway of traffic had formed linking Dalat with other areas in Viet Nam passing the railway from Da Lat - Thap Cham and Trans-VietNam- Ha Noi – Sai Gon as the final highway between Tuy Hoa – Dai Lanh was inaugurated on 4/10/1936.

A temporary station was built near the position of the train station today, with the shape like the small railway stations belonging to France countryside. At that time, the exploitation of the railway and the stations by SGAI management. Today, this house has been dismantled after finished the new station.

The temporary station

The current station of Da Lat was built from 1932 to 1938 to replace the temporary station which was located on Nguyen Trai road.

The works were designed by Révéron and Moncet architects basing on architecture, size and lay-out was similar to the Deauville station city - Calvados region of northern France.

Along with Ha Noi station, Da Lat station was the most impressive architecture in Vietnam.

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