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Industry and Handicraft 

1. Overview Of Industry And Handicraft In Da Lat.

The crafts of the old Dalat natives mainly demanded for many agricultural activities and some basic living needs. They were forging, forest exploitation, weaving, and knitting.

Because of the contact and exchange with the Cham and the Kinh, some local residents produced commodities to trade and exchange. Handicraft products were improved in both of quality and form. The woven sedge products: mats, hats, bags... were exchanged and traded everywhere. Knitting technique was quite sharp, geometric patterns were decorated with high aesthetic values. Lach mat was durable; folding was not broken, beautiful by the soft, delicate but prominent designs.

Some industrial professions formed in Dalat during this period of time were almost nothing except for the first brick kiln that was established in 1942 to serve the building purposes. The quite - developed handicraft in Da Lat town in the 1950s is the coffee - beans roasting. In 1956, a Natural Porcelain basis was established at Mat Camp.

According to statistics, from the years 1959 - 1965, the amount of money that the National Agricultural Credit lent to product small - scale technologies in the plateau only averaged 1.8% of total money all branches lent.

After 1975, in Da Lat, companies, enterprises which had important positions to the local economy were under the management of province and provincial branches such as Lam Dong Minerals Company, Pharmaceutical Factory, Lam Dong Printing Factory, Automobile Repairing Factory, Lam Dong Water factory, Da Lat Wine factory, Da Lat Porcelain Factory, Cau Dat Tea factory, Natural Porcelain factory,... In addition, some other units were managed by the ministries and central agencies such as Map Printing Enterprise, Vaccines Institution, Pharmaceuticals Factory,...

Industrial and small - scale handicraft bases managed directly by Da Lat City included Export Garment Factory, Da Lat Fertilizer Factory, Wood Processing Factory, Artichoke Processing Joint Venture. The small - scale handicraft establishments that Ward and Industry Chamber of Dalat city managed were organized into Handicraft Cooperative Union.

During this period of time, the operations of the industries and the crafts in Da Lat began developing with many old professions that enhanced and opening new professions. Especially, the operations of individual handicraft facilities were organized into cooperative groups, cooperatives, producing groups such as Binh Minh Appliances Cooperative, Anh Sang Wooden Handicrafts Cooperative, Anh Dao Knitting Cooperative, Cao Nguyen Glass Producing Cooperative, Lam Son Testing Semi - finished Plywood Production Cooperative, Farming tools, tole products, tinplate United Co - operative, Hong Ngoc Embroidery Cooperative,... were the initial collective economic units of the quite developing industries in Dalat.

In 1984, the small - scale technologies in Da Lat had 9 Cooperatives, 27 producing cooperative groups with more than 1000 employees. Until 1986, these numbers had grown into 12 cooperatives and 35 cooperative groups, 1 united - cooperative store, 15 stalls with nearly 3000 employees, including 3 units: Binh Minh Cooperative, Anh Sang Cooperative and Lam Son Cooperative were recognized as high - level cooperatives of the province. By 1988, the sector had had over 50 collective economic units, nearly 600 professional producing handicraft households, in which many households had a relatively producing large scale such as Ngoc Mai, Thanh Huong, Phong Lan, Da Lat Leather, Than Huu with total workforce of over 5000 people, that not mention to the amateur small - scale handicraft areas.

These significant products in this period were the processing forest product industries of all types, agricultural specialty, glass ceramics, mechanical, chemical, knitting and embroidery, textiles, fresh oil and other art - crafts. Consuming product markets were expanded. Products were not only consumed in localities in the country but also exported to other countries in Europe, including the most important market - Soviet market with vital export products such as black tea, wooden products, garments, knitting, Safrole, Ocimum sanctum, some Podocarpus imbricatus handicraft items,... Some goods consumed in local and some provinces such as tea, coffee, kaolin, wooden products, other liqueurs, sauces,...

After 1986, public enterprises of tea processing, knitting... mostly lost its traditional markets. The cooperatives, small scale handicraft cooperative groups almost did not work, Thong Xanh Cooperative, Anh Sang Cooperative, 8/3 Cooperative,... almost closed due to the lack of materials. In 1989, the handicraft United cooperative was dissolved.

In the period 1991 - 2000, industry and small - scale handicraft developed slowly, the ratio decreased continuously from 13.3% in 1991 down to 11.65% in 1995. Industrial and small scale handicraft producing activities focused on mining building stones, processing and confectionery, alcohol and knitting export,... In 1998, Da Lat had 754 operating facilities (up 127% compared to 1990), solved jobs for 4,158 employees, of which over 3,000 people involved in the production process in the knitting industry.

In 2001, Da Lat city had 896 units operating in the industry and small scale handicraft areas, which had 1 central state - owned unit, 8 local - owned units, 3 collective economic units, 8 private economic units, 860 household facilities, 8 abroad - invested facilities. Growth rate reached 10.6%/year.

By December 2006, the operating facilities on industry and small - scale handicraft areas reduced to 749 units.

During this time, industrial operations and small - scale cottage industries of Dalat mainly focused on processing industries, including food - beverage manufacturing industries - and clothing manufacturing industries accounted for higher rates.

The Number Of Industrial And Small - Scale Handicraft

Producing Facilities In Locations Of Da Lat (2001 - 2006)

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Central state - owned unit

1

2

1

1

2

1

Local - owned unit

8

9

8

8

6

7

Collective unit

3

3

3

4

3

3

Private unit

8

23

24

36

40

40

Individual

860

798

704

728

720

688

Abroad - invested unit

8

4

5

5

5

5

Total

888

839

745

782

776

744

In 2006, industrial operations and small - scale cottage industries in the area of Da Lat city attracted 8,519 workers; the processing industry used 74.8% of the workforce, mostly concentrated in manufacturing the foods and beverages, textiles and garments areas.

The total value of industry and small - scale handicrafts created in 2006 (calculated at current prices) reached 1,021 billion VND, up 2.28 times compared to 2003. Processing industry reached 729.8 billion with food products and beverages accounted for 599.2 billion.

2. Some Industries And Small - Scale Handicrafts In Da Lat

2.1. Mining industry:

Mining industry of Da Lat was mainly about exploiting natural resources to provide materials for construction such as mining sands at downstream Cam Ly, sands in Trai Ham Hill, producing stones, split stones in Prenn, Dinh 3, Ta Nung, weathered rock (rotten rock), kaolin, some types of bentonite,... with 26 facilities and 701 employees (2006). Mostly were manual, simple labors, focused in brick production lines, quarrying, sands, kaolin exploiting,...

The number of facilities and labors in mining industry area (1995 - 2006)

Year

1995

1998

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Lumber of facilities

2

4

4

13

18

21

24

26

Labors

24

739

662

637

608

701

Real values (millions VND)

43.469

60.856

70.992

65.067

2.1.1 Sand and rock exploitations

Split rock quarrying was concentrated in the western region of Dalat, located along the roads from the center of Da Lat to Ta Nung, Song Son (Ward 4), in which Cam Ly quarry has been mined from before the year 1975, while the Song Son and other quarries along the way Ta Nung have been exploited for about 20 to 25 years and included mostly orphaned stone.

Typical Factory in large - scale construction quarrying area was the Stone Factory founded in 1976 with an initial number of 120employees, in 1986 renamed Sand - Stone Factory. The average annual yield was 10,000 m3 rocks. The period 1986 - 1994 was the highest output with 50,000 m3 of assorted split rocks and 20,000 m3 of buiding sands.

In 1995, Sand - Stone Factory, Ceramic Factory, Building Material Supply Factory merged into Building Material Company, with the total number of employees were 307 people.

The company's main products were 5x7, 1x2 macadam (100,000 m3), water ballast, bricks with tunnel kiln technology (35.6 million bricks), kaolin,...

6/12 Limited Company set up in May 1995 with 30 regular employees who applied machinery production technology combined with crafts; Main products were 5x7, 1x2 rocks, assorted split rocks, loka rocks. In 1999, companies stopped mining and producing rocks and changed to the construction industry.

Mining Outputs Of Assorted Rocks (1996 - 2006)

Year

1996

1998

2002

2004

2006

Output (m3/year)

6.000

22.000

62.000

204.000

84.000

2.1.2 Kaolin Exploitation

Kaolin in Dalat was assessed as good quality and an precious mineral in the Southern region. According to 1/200.000 rate geological surveys, two major kaolin mines in Da Lat were Datanla and Trai Mat.

Trai Mat Mine located 12.5 km south - east from Da Lat. Entire mine have been explored meticulously in 1986 with reserves of 33 million tons. Trai Mat Mine had thick place upto 40m, white and gray kaolin, and satisfactory quality for the ceramic industry.

About the technological characteristics of ore, the sample technology researches and test production confirmed the superiority of kaolins in Trai Mat in samot brick producing industry that were suitable for the production of electrical porcelain, sanitary ware and porcelain, and could be used as raw materials for industrial production of paper and fine china.

In 1972 - 1973, Thien Nhien Ceramic Company operated in Trai Mat, equipped with 27 machines, 36 manual workers, produced about 207,000 various product units per year.

Datanla Mine (Prenn) which is located 7 km south of Da Lat was identified its reserves of 49 million tons. Kaolin Datanla with low content Al203 (<30%) was used to produce fine china, crystal fillers for paint, rubber, plastics...

Mining Outputs Of Kaolin And Assorted Bentonite (2003 - 2006)

Year

2003

2004

2005

2006

Kaolin (tons/year)

30.303

41.512

43.161

42.295

All types of Bentonit(tons/year)

2.359

6.100

15.933

22.707

2.1.3. Building bricks Production.

Before 1975, Dalat only had small bricks producing facilities. In 1978, Prenn Industry - Agriculture Cooperative was founded, specializing in producing types of building units with 245 members and from 50 to 60 regular employees. Production technology was simple with mainly craft which had Diesel extruder and wood - burning stove, exploited local materials from 18 ha to 28 ha. Main products included bricks card with an average production of 800,000/year, ceramic tubes with an average production of 1.5 million/year. In 1988, the cooperative dissolved because of poor quality, outdated technology, and non - standard products.

About tile producing, in 1961 Ngoc Lam Tile Brand was first established in Da Lat; the years 1965 - 1966 it could produce up to 1,200 stiles/day. In 1973, because of demand reduction, the number of tiles fell down 200, 250 tiles per day. Until 1974, it shut down because it did not compete with products that were imported from Saigon and the other provinces.

After 1975, the tile producing facilities shut down due to economic difficulties and the low building demands. From 1985 to 1998, many facilities began to grow again with average annual production from 1.2 to 1.5 million tiles with size 20 x 20 cm.

From 1999 to now, brick products were imported from various countries, so the brick manufacturing industry did not compete on qualities and designs. Currently, only HB and Sau Binh manufacturing facilities produce efficiently, average production per year from 100 to 150 thousand tiles.

2.1.4. Tin exploition

Tin placer is most concentrated in the north of Da Lat such as Cao Mount, Chien Thang Lake and Hon Bo; in other areas, it is only in the placer form.

In 1994 - 1995, the mining in Cao Mount, Chien Thang Lake and Hon Bo ores were assigned to Lam Dong Minerals Company and other entities having capable of mining. However, the environment reverting did not strictly comply with regulations and these units did not manage the ores well. Therefore, in 1995 People's Committee of Lam Dong Province issued the Directive 04/CT - UB/Nov.15th, 1995 on the”suspension of mining, exploration, recovery, refining, trading and distribution of tin in Da Lat City and Lac Duong District"

2.2 Processing Industry

2.2.1 Food and beverage Manufacturing industry.

Before 1975, the main products of the food and beverage manufacturing industry in the Dalat were tea, coffee and strawberries. Since 1975 until now, this industry has grown with many new facilities and more diverse products as well as wine, tea bags, assorted fruit jams... with the increasing of diverse qualities and designs, has meet the needs of domestic consumption market, exports and has served to visitors.

The Number Of Facilities, Employees And Manufacturing Values (Real Values)

0f Food - Beverage Manufacturing Industry

Year

1995

1996

1997

1998

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Numbers of facilities

197

219

189

219

243

216

169

208

200

167

Employees

958

1.144

1.657

1.318

1.459

-

1.515

2.000

2.228

2.318

Real producing value (million VND)

-

-

-

-

-

-

146.056

222.247

312.645

599.181

Tea processing

Tea growing and processing professions in Dalat were formed very early (from 1927) at the Cau Dat (Xuan Truong) at an altitude of 1,600m and first base is the Cau Dat Tea Department, now is Cau Dat joint stock company.

Cau Dat tea growing areas were explored by the Dutch in 1922. In 1926, because climate and soil conditions were suitable for tea development, the French established Cau Dat Tea Department to grow tea process black tea. In 1962, this Tea Department was ceded to Vietnam Tea Company with a 80% stake of the tea export - import and 20% of the Chinese merchants in Lon Market. The company worked to the last 1969, then discontinued for reasons of security and disruption of foreign tea market as well as domestic tea market. In 1971, the Cau Dat tea Department run again and in 1975, it was converted into the Cau Dat Tea Factory belonging to South TeaCompany. In 2005, the Factory was equitized into Cau Dat Tea joint - stock company - Da Lat.

Cau Dat tea Department had an exploiting area of 400ha, divided into 26 lots. Processing plant located in the highest lot including: a three - storey factory, 40m in length, 25m in breadth, many extra houses used to stir tea, warehouses and offices.

Regarding equipments, the plant had 10 grinders, a drying machine, a screening machine, a blower, a laboratory, a nursery room and a generator.

Black tea Processing

In 1993, Cau Dat tea plant which was upgraded moved from British devices to India devices that its investing value was about $ 300,000.

The main products of the Cau Dat Tea Department formerly were green tea and black tea; green tea which was consumed in the domestic market, Asia and Africa, while black tea was consumed in Europe.

The same kind of fresh tea could be made into green tea or black tea. For 1 kg of processed black or green tea should be used 5kg of fresh tea.

The process making black tea as follows: fresh tea leaves were put into the tunnel for about 20 - 25 cm thick layer; the flow of heat 400 C was blown in 4 - 5 hours to make tea leaves wilted. Then, the tea leaves were passed through rubbing and grinding machine, and left to cutting and separately rolling machine. Next, the screening machine was ready to make classification of tea uniformly. After being screened carefully, the tea was brought to incubation room with temperature from 20 - 250C, moisture from 95 - 98%. Within 5 hours, tea fermented correctly and was fragrant. After incubation, tea was brought to the dryer to stop the fermentation process in 25 - 30 minutes. When drying completed, people used blower to clean tea, remove stems and sort out kinds of tea, and then packed in the plywood boxes which were lined with aluminum foil.

Black tea products were classified into several categories such as FOP (flowery Orange Pekoe), OP (Orange Pekoe), BOP (Broken Orange Pekoe), BOPF (Broken Orange Pekoe Fanning), PF (Pekoe Fanning), F (Fanning), D (Dust), R (Residus).

Green tea exports were also produced in large factories, often being exported to some Asian countries. In form, dry green tea with pale green or green - brown, with or without white hair; tea was mixed having greenish yellow to reddish yellow, acrid bitter taste, real flavor of tea, all green tea residues. Green tea used in the domestic market was reprocessed by dealers for further flavor such as marinated lotus then sold to consumers. Green tea market was concentrated in the hands of the Chinese merchants in Lon Market.

In the years 1995 - 2000, Bao Gia establishment in Cau Dat organized purchasing and processing tea products that served for popular consumption.

Currently, Cau Dat tea Joint Stock Company has 240 ha material area with many kinds of tea LD97, TB14, O Long...

Since 1995, the Cau Dat tea area has had the companies with foreign capital investment such as Fusheng Limited Liability Company, Haiyih Limited Liability Company invested in production with some kinds of tea Olong, Thuy Ngoc, Kim Tuyen, Tu Do for processing into high quality tea products for export that mainly meet to the Taiwan market. To December 2006, Cau Dat high tea material area had an area of 235ha.

Fusheng Limited Liability Company invested in areas of cultivating and processing high quality tea in Cau Dat in 1995 with the initial investment size was 20.3 ha. Currently, the material tea area has reached to 50ha; 30ha of which comply with the investment model linking to farmers. Kinds of tea being invested to develop are O Long, Tu Quy, Kim Tuyen tea.

High quality Tea Processing

Haiyih Limited Liability Company was a unit separated from the Fusheng Limited Liability Company in 2002 with an initial area of 9.3 ha. By 2006, the Haiyih Company had had 29ha tea - growing and had associated investment in manufacturing, purchasing material tea products with 125ha and 346 agricultural households. In 2005, the Haiyih Company exported to Taiwan 31 tons of tea finished products and 9 months in 2006, it exported 48 tons.

The Development Of High Quality Material Tea At Xuan Truong (2002 - 2006)

No.

Investing units

Growing areas of high quality material tea (ha)

Total

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

1

Fusheng Limited Liability Company

11

10

-

-

-

21

2

Haiyih Limited Liability Company

9

-

20

-

-

29

3

Cầu Đất Joint Stock Company

-

-

6

10

14

30

4

Households

-

30

35

43

47

155

Total

21

40

61

53

61

235

Vinh Tien Tea Limited Company established in 1996, had head office at 39 - 41 Pham Ngoc Thach Street, Da Lat. Vinh Tien Tea Limited Company traded the processed tea products with or without flavorings; main products were artichokes tea bags, soluble tea, powder tea; Ha Thu O herbal tea bags, Sweet Grass, Bitter Melon, Linh Chi, Noni, Seaweed, Heat of Lotus,... especially herbal tea, artichokes and coffee bags.

These products had high quality, luxurious, convenient, easy to use, in accordance with modern life and good for health. Each tea had its practical uses. In 2005, Vinh Tien Tea Limited Company developed the field of processing wine, additionally.

Besides these manufacturing and processing tea products companies mentioned above, Da Lat had many private small and medium scale foudations such as:

- Ngoc Duy Tea Foundation, 6 Tang Bat Ho;

- Hlong ginger tea Foundation, 18C Hai Ba Trung;

- Nguyen Thai Trang tea Foundation, 1 Phan Dinh Phung;

- Ngoc Thao Foundation, 143 Y Dinh;

- Dat Viet artichoke tea Foundation, 1C Nguyen Khuyen.

Processed Tea Products Of The Outside - State Enterprises (1995 - 2006)

Year

1995

1996

1998

2002

2004

2006

Output (tons/year)

7

9

7

4

47

50

Coffee Processing

Coffee began to be grown in Da Lat in the 1930s and then expanded in many agricultural areas of Dalat as Xuan Truong, Xuan Tho, Ta Nung, Ward 5, Ward 7, Ward 10,... Coffee growing areas in Da Lat changed following the demand of the market. According to statistics, in 2006, Da Lat had about 3,500 ha of coffee concentrated in three communes Xuan Truong, Xuan Tho and Ta Nung., Da Lat was estimated to harvest about 10,000 tons of coffee beans each year.

During the years 1990 - 1993, coffee production situation was volatile by the competition of strawberry plants. However, from 1994 to 1998, the consumption price of coffee seeds on the market increased, the record was 45,000 VND/kg of coffee beans in 1995, the newly planted coffee area increased rapidly.

Types of coffee grown in Da Lat before were mainly Robusta coffee; from 1990 were renovated and replaced by Arabica coffee with species: Moka, Catura, Catimor, Bourbon... Coffee seeds quality in Da Lat was highly appreciated in the market, especially the Moka coffee that had special aroma.

Along with the development of the coffee plant, coffee processing profession appeared quite early in Dalat to cater to the demand of local consumers and the roasted coffee processing in Dalat became a business from 1954.

Before 1975, five well - known roasted coffee processing establishments in Da Lat were Le Ky, Cao Nguyen, Tung, Da Lat and Sao that served for domestic consumption. After 1975, with the development of state - owned industry, the outside - state coffee processing foundations developed, the capacity of production was raised. In 2000, coffee processing outputs of these foundations reached 232.5 tons.

Le Ky tea and coffee processing foundation (230 Phan Dinh Phung) was formed in 1954. Initially, this foundation was only a smallholder, mainly by handling so the output produced in year negligibly, each day sold 15kg of coffee powder and the consumption outside the province was 2 500kg per month.

During the period before 1975 to 1985, Le Ky foundation both produced and processed coffee and tea. In 1986, this foundation with several other households set up processing combination. Production technology of this foundation was rudimentary and crafted roaster. The main products were powdered coffee with output from 4 to 5 tons/year. This collaboration only existed for one year, and then retired.

In 1988, Le Ky tea - coffee foundation was restored to the individual producing establishment, working on average of 12 people a year, production technology included simple machines; raw material supplies in Lam Dong; main products were powdered coffee and flavored tea. Production of powdered coffee reached 800 kg/year, scented tea reached 400 kg/year, and processed tea reached 350 kg/year. These products are consumed in the domestic market.

Currently, Le Ky tea and coffee foundation has expanded its operations with the production of powdered coffee up to 40 tons/year, flavored tea products and processed tea reached 30 tons/year, in which handling yields for Vuong Phat limited company were coffee powder: 28 tons/year, scented tea and processed tea: 19 tons/year.

Nghiem Ba Thi Coffee processing establishment founded in 1983 with the original employees were 5 people, raw material supplies were in the province of Lam Dong and Dac Lac. Revenue in 1983 was 3,000,000 VND/year, the main product was powdered coffee, yield: 2,000 kg/year. By 2000, the yearly turnover of 400 million VND, output: 15,000 tons/year. To date, this foundation still continues to produce, expand more products and new models.

Besides the well - known establishments, in Dalat now, there are many coffee roasting and grinding foundations and tea processing foundations as Ich Vinh, Song Long, Thai Bao of Quang Thai Limited Company.

Processed Coffee Products Of The Outside - State Businesses (1995 - 2006)

Year

1995

1996

1998

2002

2004

2006

Output (tons/year)

6

8

5

80

118

211

Wine, beer and soft drinks production

Dalat wine enterprise established in 1979 was the state - owned enterprise operating in the field of beverage processing. During this time, production technologies and processing equipments were at an average combined with crafts. Number of employees at initial period were from 30 to 35 people. Dalat wine enterprise produced many kinds of wine, vine wine, plum wine, strawberry wine,... the average output per year was some dozens of thousand liters.

In 1995, Lam Dong Food Company began to develop additionally beer products with production from 1.5 to 2 million liters/year.

December 2003, Lam Dong Food Company equitized into Lam Dong Food Joint - stock Company (LADOFOODS). The company's main product at this time was beer that was consumed in Da Lat, other districts in Lam Dong province and Ninh Thuan province.

Also during this time, the company invested in developing wine and claret wine products branded Dalat and processing of export cashew nuts. Currently, the company's products have been sold in domestic and foreign markets, be liked by consumers and trusted by users. The company has a factory and a producing and processing workshop of export cashew nuts and a Da Lat claret wine factory. The company's head office is at No. 4B Bui Thi Xuan, Ward 2, Da Lat city.

Dalat claret wine processing factory is located at 31 Ngo Van So, Dalat City, the processing capacity is 2 million liters/year with European technology. The main products are Dalat claret wine, Dalat wine, the strong liquors, the processed products from specialty fruits in Dalat (AVIA - branded fruit juices, mild wine with gas AVIVA).

Dalat claret wine was famous drinks of Dalat before 1975. Claret wine is a wine usually extracted from fresh fruit such as grapes, prunes..., but the Da Lat claret wine is made from mulberries. Before 1975, Farraut wine company was established by Mr. Nguyen Huu Duc. He used type of mulberry brought from France to make wine. Many Dalat people knew making claret wine that only differed from distillation techniques.

From the mid 80s of the 20th century, because demands for consumption in the areas of Da Lat increased highly, number of private establishments producing fermented beer and gas beverage were formed such as Loc Tho, No. 1 Beer, No. 9 Beer, Cay Thong, Son Ha,...

Loc Tho Beer foundation established and started operations in 1989, average of 20 workers per year. Main raw material for production was barley that was imported from Quang Ngai. Loc Tho beer foundation produced two products that were beer bottles with production of 438,000 bottles/year and soft drinks with production of 57,600 bottles/year. Products were sold primarily in Dalat and some adjacent districts, to 1992, the foundation stopped working.

No. 1 Beer producing foundation began to operate in 1989 with 30 employees, craft production technologies, major raw materials were barley, houblon, rice, wheat germ, brewer's yeast. The output of the first year only gained 36,000 bottles but to the years 1992 - 1993, it increased nearly four times with 120,000 bottles. Then operation of this foundation decreased to 60,000 bottles and stopped working in 1995 because it did not compete with the same type products of other advanced producing units.

Assorted Beer Products Of The Outside - State Enterprises (1995 - 2006)

Year

1995

1996

1998

2002

2004

2006

Output (1000 liters/year)

180

420

-

694

492

481

Food Processing

Lam Dong Foodstuff Factory was established in 1977, its main product was soy sauce product with annual average production from 100,000 liters to 200,000 liters. In 1982, firm developed more juice oil products, soya curd,... Raw material sources were imported from Dak Lak, Binh Phuoc and some other provinces. Products were assigned to the commercial stores. By 1985, factories did not produce soya curds any longer, only produced sauce and juice oil.

In 1990, Lam Dong Foodstuff Factory and Dalat Wine Factory merged into Lam Dong Foodstuff Company with main products were sauces and juice oil; company also produced cashew nut with production of 450 tons/year (exports reached 300 tons/year). Cashew nuts were exported to countries like China, USA, UK, Australia, Canada. In recent years, exports to the U.S. market were the most. The remainders were sold on the domestic market and given to the confectionery units.

Wine, fruit jam Processing

Along with the formation and development of Da Lat, fruit growing asserted gradually its position in the local economy. Strawberry, pink, plum, peach,... became the specialty of Dalat fruit. Demand of consumption for visitors were various so Da Lat people also had a new profession that was processing fruit specialties into wine, jam, syrup, candy and other products.

In 1959, strawberry and some of fruits processing foundation of Mr. Vien Phu was formed at Duy Tan street (now is Ba Thang Hai Street). By 1963, there was an additional Tam Thanh foundation in Ham Nghi street (now is Nguyen Van Troi Street). To 1975, Da Lat had only two establishments processing strawberry wine and jams, in which Vien Phu establishment specialized in the hard liquor with the large numbers, while Tam Thanh establishment specialized in mild wine production with the smaller numbers.

Strawberry wine - making techniques are not complicated. Choose the fresh berries, not be crushed, next washed, soaked with sugar at the rate of 1 kg and 300 grams of strawberries and then put into a glazed terra - cotta jar(do not use plastic because it affects the taste of berries) and marinated within a month. After marinated time, dark red strawberries juice was formed in the china - ware. Strawberry juice was then fined and added rice wine 400 into, then every half strawberry juice jar filled with a rice wine jar, soaked in a long time, the longer time made the wine better. Wine was filtered having pure red color and delicious taste, then bottled and labeled for sale.

Besides strawberries - fruit trees were originated from temperate zone that were imported in the early century, Da Lat has many kinds of plums that is now grown in Trai Ham, Tram Hanh. Dalat plum has red purple or yellow red, sour, slightly acrid and bitter that is eaten fresh or as jam, pickled plum or making wine.

The way to make plum wine is similar to make alcohol but making plum jam is pickier. You must select big ripe fruits but still be hard, washed and used sharp knife cuting little by little around the fruit, then brined. Plums were pickled in a week, cleaned and dipped in lime in about one day to make them hard. Then cleaned again and boiled them in water, when water boiled, you picked them out. Every 1 kg boiled plums was put in 850 grams of sugar, soaked, and then simmered it. Jams were dark red, sweet; treacle and attractive fragrance.

In the 60 years of the twentieth century, strawberry wine and plum wine were the specialties of Dalat. Later, people made more berry and plum jams. These products were consumed in Da Nang, Buon Ma Thuot, Pleiku, and Saigon many years ago.

Wine made from mulberry was produced from 2003 with Dalat wine trademark of Lam Dong Joint - Stock Foodstuff Company.

Another product was strawberry treacle made from strawberries juice. Strawberry juice added sugar that was cooked over low heat to reduce water and to be dense, then bottled. Strawberry treacle was used as syrup to mix into the wine or mixed drinks, often to be bought and used by customers on tropical provinces. Previously, strawberry treacle was used by Dalat Wine Factory as a raw material to process some kinds of the mild wine in the industrial scale.

After 1975, the craft of making jams and fruit wines in Dalat developed more than before with several new establishments. The number of cooperative groups, households participating in this trade increased dramatically in the years 1979 - 1984. The production in this time got some difficulties such as limited resource, provisions of the State on price, consumption area, fuel supplies, provisions on hygiene inspection and safety food as well as registration, quality control,...

Besides traditional products such as strawberry jam, plum jam, peach jam, strawberry wine... currently in Dalat, about 80 households specialize in processing and producing commodities such as jam mango, tamarind, switches, white beans, tomatoes, cherry, kiwi, assorted pickled sauces, soft sweet potatoes, ginger sweet potatoes,... The package is also various, convenient, and has more artistic shows.

We can say that the specialty - fruit products processing actually becomes a profession bringing the own features of Da lat.

2.3 Forest - product Production

2.3.1 Wood - product Production

Due to the special natural position with pure populations of pine forest, Dalat forests are considered as landscape for resort. Thus, the orientation programs of socio - economic development of Da Lat city in the past and present insist on forest protection and development rather than focus on economic exploitation.

Before 1975, Tuyen Duc pine forest played a significant role in the exploitation and distribution of wood.

The wood exploitation in Da Lat - Tuyen Duc was made from 1927 with about 3.000 m3 per year. In 1931 the first wood processing factory appeared in Dalat. The level of wood exploitation increased steadily, year 1941 was 15.000 m3. In 1962, Vietnam Paper Company began exploiting tricuspid pine wood as a feedstock for Tan Mai Paper Factory. This wood was also provided for COGIVINA Paper Factory, the SIFA Company’s match plant, toothpick factory in Saigon, soaking and making pole factories at Phan Rang...and a portion was exported.

According to statistics, the production of timber in Tuyen Duc increased from 53.076m3 in 1969 up to 114.712m3 in 1973, in which exported pine wood increased quickly from 1.000m3 in 1970 to 90.291m3 in 1973, accounting for 78% of total production of wood. Pine timber was exported under the form of logs to the Japanese market and a little to the Hong Kong market.

About wood processing industry, the wood sawing workshops were primary operating establishments at local. According to the Tuyen Duc Forest - Maritime Company, to 1973, there were 35 licensed practicing sawing workshops, but only 27 shops operated. By the end of 1973, only 14 workshops operated and to the early 1974, having 85% of the factory suspended. The number of machines equipped in the sawing workshops were 100 CD4 sawing machines that were used to saw logs, 105 plate sawing machines used to saw the cover of trees.

Da Lat - Tuyen Duc Sawing Workshop (1969 - 1973)

Year

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

Licensed practicing sawing Shop

27

28

30

33

35

Official operating sawing Shop

24

27

26

27

27

CD4 sawing machine

60

69

78

85

100

Plate sawing machine

53

57

74

85

105

In the years 1969 - 1971, these sawing shops consumed a mount of logs from 40000 - 50000 m3 per year, however, and then the amount of logs decreased steadily, to 1973, it had only 17032 m3, mainly due to the quick increasing of pine wood exporting while pine wood was the main exploiting kind in Tuyen Duc.

Technically, the engine used to run the CD4 machines were the old repaired machines run by petrol or diesel or sometimes run by electric motors. The sawing mill produced about 60% of wood - finished products, 30 - 40% tree cover, sawdust; trifling cover... did not bring significant benefit. In 1975, Dalat only had three operating sawing worrkshops: Thuan Thanh, Thien Nghia on Phan Dinh Phung Street, and Ngoc Dung on Hung Vuong Street.

The last 1975, Da Lat Pine forest was managed more fair closely than the provisions of the State and local government that aimed at preserving the natural landscape, ecological environment protection and tourism service for rehabilitation.

From around 1984 - 1988, some pine forest areas in Dalat were processed to get resin and wood by exploiting totally then afforested again. However, this exploitation process was not implemented fully so the natural forest area of Da Lat was reduced significantly.

In 1994, Luckpile Company was founded, this was a foreign - invested company operating in the field of exploiting and plywood processing, flooring planks that exported to Indonesia, and using the three - leaf pine material. The company had processing plant in Ward 11. Luckpile Company only operated to the year 1999, then closed due to the ”closed forests” policy of the State.

Currently Dalat still has some sawing workshops operating with main timber is the gathered all timber and thinning forest under annual plans of the forestry industry. Production of sawn timber each year is approximately 2,000 m3

Wood - Product Producing Establishment (2001 - 2006)

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Wood - product producing establishment

26

7

10

8

8

10

Employees

-

125

244

136

77

57

Sawn wood output (m3)

-

3000

3000

4000

3000

-

Real producing value (million VND)

-

-

5 799

9400

4689

6098

2.3.2 Household wooden furniture producing and processing

Fields of producing, and processing household wooden furnitures is a fairly developing area in Dalat in recent years with the raw materials are plywood, Okai plank,... Household Products quickly keep with many new designs to meet consumers’ taste. Household wooden furniture producing industry in Da Lat has formed a series of establishments with shops in Ba Thang Hai such as Tuan Truong Nuoi, Duc Thanh, Thanh Dat, Dai Nam, Cao Minh, Thanh Tung, Phuong Nam,...

Household wooden furniture producing establishment (2001 - 2006)

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Household wooden furniture producing establishment

26

7

10

8

8

10

employees

103

40

-

-

-

-

Output (products)

-

1.886

2.881

2.402

5.303

2.721

Real producing value (million VND)

-

-

3.141

5.231

4.293

3.021

2.4 Printing Industry

Printing industry in Dalat was formed from the first half of the twentieth century with Da Lat print - works (Imprimerie de DaLat), Verdun, Lam Vien, Tri Huong.

In 1944, the Department of Geography Indochina with the main task of editing, drawing and printing maps for the three Indochinese countries moved to Dalat. On April 1st,1955, the Department of Geography Indochina renamed Geographic Nation.

After 1975, Geographic Nation was changed into Printing Workshop II belonging to Ministry Department of Maps that was under the management of Vietnamese People's Army.

Currently, besides the main task is to set up, edit, and print maps,..., Map Factory in Dalat also prints books, newspapers, packaging, trademarks,...

After 1975, the Service of Culture - Information in Lam Dong province received 6 private printing workshops and established 1 printing establishment called Van Hoa print - shop, located at No. 4 Ho Tung Mau Street, Dalat.

In 1979, the Ministry of Culture helped to equip two more offset printing machines, Lam Dong state - owned printing enterprise was established at 4 - 6 Princess Huyen Tran. This was state - owned enterprise with 40 employees, with typo and offset printing technologies. The main products are books, kinds of forms, newspapers, magazines...

In 1993, the unit was changed into Lam Dong printing enterprise with 50 employees, and with offset printing technology. In 2000, the enterprise produced 89 millions of printing pages of books, 61 million pages of assorted forms, newspapers and magazines,... Its headquarter located at 122 Nguyen Van Troi Street, Da Lat.

In 2000, Lam Dong Printing Enterprise merged with Lam Dong book publishing Company into Lam Dong book printing and publishing Company, that both organized printing operations and published book.. In 2006, implementing equitization, the company transformed into Lam Dong Joint - stock book printing and publishing Company with 165 employees, and with printing workshop at 74 Ngo Quyen and Book publishing Center in Hoa Binh Da Lat zone.

Besides Da Lat Maps Enterprise and Lam Dong Joint - stock book printing and publishing Company, in recent years, photocopy operations in Da Lat developed with many private establishments.

Printing And Photocopying Establishment (2001 - 2006)

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Printing and photocopying establishment

12

15

17

16

20

22

Employees

-

135

182

177

181

120

Output of printing pages (million pages)

-

45

59

71

275

1.859

Real producing value (million VND)

-

-

3.965

4.101

7.094

8.369

2.5 Textiles, knitting product, embroidery, sewing product manufacturing

2.5.1 Textiles

Textile industry does not grow in Da Lat. Textile products are mainly brocades of indigenous people.

“Ui” is a Padded blanket woven in cotton from the Dinh Van Commune; the fibers are dyed with tree bark. Blue color is dyed with ”trum” plant, light blue is stained in ”tromia” trees, red color is dyed with ”dong” tree, yellow is dyed with ”romit” tree, and black is dyed with ”tolia” tree.

Textile products have 2 small sizes 0.4 x 1.8 m and 0.6 x 2 m. The time to weave each sheet is from 1 to 3 days.

Textile products have 2 large sizes 1.2 x 2 m and 1.2 x 3 m. The time to weave each sheet is 5 days.

The material is grown on the land tenure, has planting season is from April to October, and is trimmed with tenth - month rice; exposing whole trees after harvesting for cotton, making cotton tattered and then twined into curls and span.

Dyeing Method: Soaking the raw material in boiling water jar by compacting within 15 days and then fished out and squeezed; shells, oysters are baked on the fire to get their limes that are put in the soaked leaves water in 4 days, next, drain off water, and the stagnated residue continue to be soaked one day one night, after that, take it out and put it in the bamboo dish in 1 month. Finally, the raw material is soaked in dyeing water 3 times to become ”ùi” textile material.

2.5.2 Knitting Industry

Due to the cold climate, the knitting has developed in Dalat for a long time with the numerous knitting craftsmen having high - level skills.

Wool products processing is also considered as a very priate profession of Da Lat city. Since 1965, the private wool - knitting workshops have been established in Da Lat that could produce from 1 to 1.2 million products annually for the domestic market.

In Dalat, tourists easily find the very various and beautiful woolen commodities that are suitable for all aesthetic requirements of consumers. From 1975 up to now, Da Lat wool knitting has thrived; knitted wool products are exported to European countries, Japan, Taiwan. This profession is now attracting the attention of domestic and foreign customers, contributing to solve a employment part for local people.

Before 1975, the number of woollen manufacturers in Dalat were divided into two categories: manufacturers had shops and manufacturers did not have shops.

Several manufacturers have shops like shop Nha Trang (1960), Vo Thanh (1960), Minh Phuong (1969),... with the main operation was selling ready - made sweaters, sweaters produced by customers’ orders, selling some tools in the knitting craft as knitting needles, buttons,... in addition, training for those who want to learn knitting.

Some other shops did not get the sweater set that only offered sweaters made available to consumers.

Manufacturers did not have stores that mainly were people who operated separately and discretely, received knitting supplies from the shops in the market, made consignments or self - knitting

Products are divided into two categories: sweaters were made available for sale and sweaters set by customers. Regarding technical aspects, sweaters also differentiated: sweaters woven by hand or knitting machine, so there were differences in price between two products.

Raw wool producing material mostly produced by Vinh Thinh Company such as Red, Chameau,... There were also some wools from the USA as Snow Ball, from Japan such as Sydney, Mouton d'or, from the UK as Jumper, Piccadilly, from Australia as Australia, from France as Chat Botte, Marigold,... in which the wool from France, Australia, the UK had qualities better than other wools.

In general, before 1975, Da Lat had very few knitting machines, only one Erka machine, a Trimac machine, two Singer machines and two Silver machines. Erka machine of French was used to knit the special patterns. Silver and Singer machines specialized in knitting circles and mixing colors. Trimac machine was used in knitting kinds of big wool fibres.

Since 1975, wool market has been extensive, woollen processing profession developed. In the years 1979 - 1980, there was the beginning of forming groups and knitting cooperatives in wards (concentrated mainly in six inner - city wards), and solving local labors. Organizations such as youth, women also participated in opening knitting establishments to creat jobs for young women.

In 1985, Da Lat established Export - Knitting Enterprise that was supported equipments, supplied raw materials and ordered to process products by Ing Zesba Company (Taiwan). The enterprise had 600 employees working directly at the factory. In addition, there were hundreds of satellites focusing employees. Each worker might also be a clue to work for two, three or five, ten other people by coming forward and receiving goods to them. The recipient was responsible for designs, engineering’s and delivery time. Market was expanded in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. In 1985, companies exported 77,000 woolen products.

In 1994, the APEX Dalat Company was established on the basis of a joint venture between the UK and Vietnam. The company was headquartered at 38 Tran Phu. Field operations mainly were knitting to export in Europe and the America markets with production of 1.5 million products/year. The company had average regular workers of 800 people, the peak period reached to 1,500 employees.

In 2000, the Quoc Thinh Textile Limited Company was established in 14 Bis Pham Hong Thai. The company's main business line was textile fabrics. The company had a total area of 1,500 m2 of factory with 200 workers. In 2005, the company produced 250,000 products, including more than half the number of products exported to the U.S. and the rest sold on the spot.

The Knitting And Embroidery Products Of The Outside - State Enterprises

(1995 - 2006)

Year

1995

1996

1998

2002

2004

2006

Output (1,000 products)

760

512

820

190

337

49.815

2.5.3 Embroidery

Before 1975, the embroidery in Dalat was not known as a real job, products also were not diversified.

After 1975, the embroidery developed and embroidery became strength of Da Lat. However, because of the general fluctuations, Dalat embroidering was also retarded. By 1992, an artistic picture embroidering establishment with 20 skilled craftsmen came forward to restore this business and shifted to other commodities, mainly for products of high artistic value, such as table cloths, pillow slips, paintings which were popular at home and abroad by skilful lines of embroidering. Silk - embroidered painting was one of the excellent handicraft products of embroidering artisans in Dalat and presented in many countries around the world.

Hand Embroidery Painting is art, not only simply is the way to choose and arrange the colored yarn blocks following the available lines but also have to undergo many complicated processes. Artists design drawings with pencil on tracing paper, then depending on the theme and size, they and embroiderers will choose colors, suitable fabrics, transfer drawing patterns onto the canvas, sketching the picture, then embroidering stage requires the artistic creativity of artisans and embroiderers. They must grasp the idea, the aesthetic value and the color scheme of the artist.

So far, Da Lat has many companies operating in this area, typically are Huu Hanh Cooperative and XQ Dalat Limited Liability Company with embroideries on silk are very valuable in art.

Huu Hanh Handicraft Cooperative (1 Truong Cong Dinh) was established in 1994 with the precursor was Huu Hanh embroidered painting establishment.

The early 1990, in an exhibition of traditional products across the country that was held in Hanoi, Huu Hanh embroidered painting quickly conquered people who enjoyed works of art. In 1996, Huu Hanh Handicraft Cooperative participated in exhibition in Osaka. Up to now, it has had more than 100 times participating in exhibitions at the domestic and foreign with thousands of paintings were sold.

Huu Hanh embroidered paintings have quite high durability, good materials, soft, warm colors, and elegant, gentle lines. The unique technique of Huu Hanh embroidered paintings is shown in the portrait category. Another creative art style having almost no other competitors are check - stitch embroidering technique that still retains colors mixing together smoothly, sophisticatedly, meticulously in every needle - work, flexible, vivid and charming colors create the personalities of Huu Hanh embroidered paintings.

XQ Dalat Limited Company was established in 1996, its precursor was XQ Dalat Silk Embroidering Cooperative with 20 artisans.

Since the first 15 embroidered paintings exhibition, the operation of the XQ Da Lat Limited Company has grown. In late 2001, the XQ traditional embroidering village was Embassy formed, creating a creative space for artists and artisans who embroidered paintings.

The unique in XQ embroidered paintings was that with the same embroidery patterns, each artisan with the different emotions created the separate color schemes. To complete an embroidered painting, a group of 2 - 3 workers worked hard all month; the big paintings were much more complex, it took a lot of time to complete a satisfactory work. XQ embroidered painting had a kind of 2 lines embroidered on chiffon fabric background. By yarn - hiding techniques, XQ artisans created paintings having two identical faces.

Currently, XQ Limited Liability Company has more than 2,500 artisans, thousands of embroiderers in a same system, a branch in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hue, Da Nang, Nha Trang, Hoi An and agents in the UK, U.S., Thailand, Singapore, Japan.

In addition, Da Lat has many other new hand - embroidered painting establishments that are formed as Ky Vong, Thu Ha, Dang Viet,...

2.5.4 Sewing profession

Sewing profession in Da Lat actually has become a handicraft since after 1975 and then developed in the late 1980s.

During this time, the Dalat Sewing enterprise played an important role in the operation of the garment industry in Dalat. The enterprise had a shop, four counters, 81 ready sewing stations.

In 1986, the operation of enterprise increased 3 times in compare to the year 1985. In the first quarter in 1986 the enterprise had a total value of 4,079,000 VND, of which it purchased more than 60,000m assorted fabrics, hundred thousands VND of buying other materials. As for available sewing, the enterprise produced nearly 27,000 suits and ten thousands of other products providing to districts, new economic zones.

Since 1989, Dalat sewing industry moved to form of joint ventures with enterprises to carry out processing of export goods.

Dalat Export Sewing Enterprise was founded in 1989, was a state - owned enterprise of Da Lat city, the average number of employees was 100 people. Main operation of enterprise in the period from 1989 - 1992 was sewing processed jackets for businesses in Ho Chi Minh City with average output of 100,000 products/year.

In late1992, the enterprise was linked to Taiwan businessmen to invest capital, machinery, raw materials for processing sweater production, with the output 300,000 products/year. In 1996, the enterprise stopped to work and dissolved.

In July 1995, on the basis of the associated joint venture between Lam Dong province and Huy Hoang Construction and Garment Joint Stock Company (Ho Chi Minh City), Da Lat export embroidery project began construction and operated officially in 1996 with annual output of 350,000 products, creating jobs for 1,200 workers

Da Lat Embroidering - Sewing Export Company founded in 1996 was the state - owned enterprise in Lam Dong province, with average of employees in the initial year was 300 people. The main operation was sewing processed jackets and sweat - pants… with the average annual output was 150,000 products.

October1998, Huy Hoang Company (Ho Chi Minh City) formed a joint - venture with the Da Lat Embroidering - Sewing Export Company to carry out the processing step of jackets products, sweat - pants,... for Europe, Taiwan, Canada, North Korea markets. The highest output was in 1999 with 150,000 products and in 2000 with 300,000 products.

By 2006, Da Lat had 66 establishments operating in the field of textile production and 270 costumes producing establishments.

Textile And Costume Producing Establishment (2001 - 2006)

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Textile establishments

68

77

75

60

63

66

costumes producing establishments

312

294

271

272

268

270

Sewing processed products (1,000 products)

-

198

220

299

300

313

Real producing value (million VND)

-

-

70.369

104.706

106.211

103.097

2.6 Glass, Plastic

Cao Nguyen Glass Cooperative was established in 1984 with about 70 employees/month. Production technology was in semi - manual form. Material production was glass scraps with the supplies were collected oddly in scrap dealer. The main products were various kinds of glassware’s such as 2 liters and 1 liter large neck containers, strawberry jam containers, assorted drinking cups... with the average output of 45 tons/year. In 1989, the Cooperative dissolved.

Dalat Plastic Factory was established on October 2nd 1987 with the total fixed capital was 28 million and 7 million mobile capital. Main products of enterprise were the main and recycled water pipe, PE plastic bags products. Enterprise also having two extra production lines were a line of casting iron pipes for drying tea in tea industry and a wood production line of producing tables, cabinets, beds, chairs,...

2.7 Attar Processing

Beginning in 1980, many private distilling and processing establishments, cooperatives of attar of Peppermint, Sarsi, holy basil, citronella... were formed Da Lat city with the aim of distilling attar to meet demand for cosmetics, food products, drugs in Ho Chi Minh City.

In 1986, producing establishment imported attars in Ward 4 was established with about 100 employees, processing two main products: attars of Sarsi and holy basil.

Sarsi attar was distilled from Sarsi trees in the areas in Lam Dong province with an average production of 100 tons/year. The establishment delivered the product for Export - Import companies in Dalat and Saigon, attar products were exported to Japan, each exporting was about 10 tons.

Holy basil attar were distilled from the material planted about 20 ha in the Pin Hatt foothills near Tuyen Lam Lake. Every 6 months, people cut branches and distilled aromatherapy on the spot. Holy basil plants were grown in Ta Nung forest but not succeed, to 1989, the establishment stopped producing holy basil attar because of not gaining the desired effect.

Menthol was very precious material for many industries, foods and medicines. The statistics showed that 1 ha mints planted in the Northern provinces having yield about 6 - 8 tons of leaves/cutting stage with content of attar from 0.4% - 0.5%, while in Da Lat, on 1 ha mint planted, we could harvest 8 - 12 tons leaves/cutting stage. If you took good care, you would harvest 3 times the amount of leaves than usual. Average of 1 ha each year harvested from 70 - 80 kg menthol. Da Lat grew about 15 ha of mint, but intensification was not concerned adequately and only harvested on average less than 150 tons/ha/year.

2.8 Soap, toothpaste producing

Soap, toothpaste manufacturing was formed in Da Lat after 1975 and only existed for a short time. Units operating in this sector were primarily handicraft establishments with rudimentary equipments. Products met the local demands during the scarcity stage of consuming products with poor quality.

Phong Lan Soap Manufacturing Establishment was formed in 1986 in the form of individual institution with three employees. Production technology was handicraft with materials as coconut oil and caustic soda imported from other provinces such as West, Tam Quan. This foundation annually produced 30 tons of powdered soap, 10 tons of soap pieces and was assigned to the state - owned trade. The foundation stopped to work in 1990 due to no adaption to new operating mechanism.

Ngoc Mai Toothpaste, soap producing Establishment was founded in 1985, operating to 1988 then to be dissolved. The main products with annual output of toothpaste (30,000 pipes), soap powder (18 tons), soap pieces (22 tons).

2.9 Profession of “Can” wine - wine drunk out of a jar through pipes

“Can” Wine is one of the specific products of the Highland inhabitants, is the traditional and unique drinks. “Can” wine is generally used in festivals as well as used to stand friends in the normal day. Average of annual consumption of each household is around 10 small jars.

The way to make wine as follows: First, take the broken rice or rice soaked in water for a day, then grind into powder, dry, mix with barks (it is said as “Canh” roots) and crush for fermentation. Then cook the rice or corn, mix with yeast and put them in small jar, cover a layer of chaff above, cover banana dried leaves out and then tie carefully or use wet soil mixed with chaff to caulk mouth tightly. Typically, after the processing, a month after wine can be used, but ”Can” wine for a long time is tastier. When use, we leave the chaff above, plug pipes deeply down to the bottom of small jar, use the buffalo’s horn to water into mouth of small jar and suck wine out.

Wine has sweet scented smells, odorless alcohol, sweet not bitter taste, color as transparent amber and drink so much easily lead to be drunk

Currently, a number of ethnic minority households in Mang Lin, Ta Nung produces and sells wine on the market. Some excursions tourist areas also use wine for tourists.

2.10 Coping saw, fire - pen engraving

Coping saw, fire - pen engraving are the typical handicraft of Da Lat, appeared from the early of 1970. Podocarpus imbricatus is the main materia to make handicraft products by techniques of coping saw and fire - pen engraving. Some others materials such as pine trees, bamboo are also used. However, the product quality is not as good as Podocarpus imbricatus.

By skillful hands, from a thin piece of Podocarpus imbricatus wood, using small saw, artists can create many art works. These products are more and more diversified with high art value, attracting both domestic and international tourists.

In 1985, Thanh Phuong handicraft centre (43A Phạm Hồng Thái) was born. In its bright period from 2000 - 2005, there were 70 - 80 workers, working all day to make fire - pen, bamboo box in accordance with the order forms to Holland, Czrech, Australia, America, Germany,… After finishing the export contract in 2005 until today, this centre has mainly produced for domestic comsumption. Now, it also introduces its products to some countries. At the moment, Thanh Phuong centre has 20 workers.

Pictures engraved by fire - pen in Da Lat had appeared sice 1950s. The first person who discovered this kind of art was Mr Bùi Văn Dưỡng, graduated from Paris College of Arts. in1973, Mr Châu Văn Nghiêm, Owner of a handicraft shop, used to be a painter who specialized in drawing colors on wood handicraft products. He did research, developed the fire - pen engraving art.

After 1975, fire - pen engaving had more conditions to develop strongly. From primitive tools, handicraft workers used electric fire - pen to engrave pictures, portraits, traditional images…. on wood surface. From 1985 - 1990, There were six handcraft cooperatives with hundreds of artists and skillful workers. They made many beautiful products to export to some Asian and European countries, in which, fire - pen pictures was an unique one, making a good impression.

After1990, due to the shortage of Podocarpus imbricates, fire - pen engraving got many difficulties, losing its international markets. The artists gave up theirs jobs, only someone still kept. However, they only produced in family scale in line with small order form of some foreigners.

From the idea of making fake flowers and keep flower from wanning, some artists in Da Lat tried to make flowers from wood and the dyed them with chemical, pressing, drying pensée, … to make flower vases, small bags for decoration. Dried followers were exhibited in the city flower garden, in fairs, displayed in the special booths of Da Lạt.

2.11 Forging and iron making

Besides industrial work and handicraft, in order to directly serve for manufacturing, people in Da Lat have some other works such as tool forging, iron making. …

Forging has appeared in Da Lat for a long time with some main products as knife,… of the local people. The farming in Da lat started developing since 1940, forging has been more and more developed. It produces many important products for agriculture such as hoes, shovels, rinse, knife, fork,...Some forging workshops have operated up to now such as a forging workshop of Mr. Nghe in Xuan Truong, Ba Rèn forging workshop in Trai Mat,…

Iron making developed rapidly in Da Lat in the last 1990s when the demands for construction increased fast with many designs using iron, steel, inox, aluminum… to make doors, stairs, railings, fences, gates,... In 2006, Da Lat had 122 metal producing establishments with 305 employees, producing value reached 23.42 billion and produced 65,000m2 iron products.

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